1858 Bradford sweets poisoning

The 1858 Bradford sweets poisoning was the arsenic poisoning of more than 200 people in Bradford, England, when sweets accidentally made with arsenic were sold from a market stall in the town.

1881 Lancashire miners’ strike

The bitter and violent Lancashire miners’ strike of 1881 lasted for seven weeks, but ended with no resolution.

1996 Manchester bombing

The 1996 Manchester bombing was an attack carried out by the Provisional Irish Republican Army on Saturday 15 June 1996, when they detonated a 15,000 kg bomb in the centre of Manchester, England.

A Christmas Carol

A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843 and illustrated by John Leech.

A Deal in Ostriches

A short story by H. G. Wells, published in 1894. A confidence trick involving an ostrich that allegedly swallowed a diamond displays the extent of human greed.

A Detection of Damnable Driftes

Sixteenth-century pamphlet describing prominent Chelmsford witchcraft trials against Elizabeth Francis and others

A Dream of Armageddon

“A Dream of Armageddon” is an anti-war short story by H. G. Wells published in 1901.

A Little Bit of Cucumber

Comedic music hall-song first performed by Harry Champion in 1915, about the types of food preferred by the cockney working classes.

A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery

A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery is a 1766 painting by Joseph Wright of Derby, depicting a lecturer giving a demonstration of an orrery.

A Slip Under the Microscope

“A Slip Under the Microscope” is a short story by H. G. Wells, first published in 1896, about the ethical dilemma faced by a student who inadvertently cheats during his botany exam.

A Vision of Judgement

A short story by H. G. Wells published in 1899, about the Biblical day of judgement.

About us

Engole has been created by experienced former Wikipedia editors who want to offer a better, more productive experience for editors and readers alike. You’ll find some of the best material that we contributed to Wikipedia here, along with much NEW and expanded content.


Abracadabra is a magic word that has been in use since at least the second century BCE, when it appears on a Greek amulet as a ba ga da.


The Ancient Egyptian dog Abuwtiyuw is one of the earliest documented domestic animals whose name is known. He is believed to have been a royal guard dog who lived in the Sixth Dynasty (2345–2181 BC).

Act of Uniformity 1558

The Act of Uniformity 1558 was one of the Acts of Parliament collectively known as the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. It introduced a Common Book of Prayer, and obliged everyone to attend their parish church every Sunday and on holy days.

Adelaide Claxton

Adelaide Sophia Claxton (1841–1927) was an English painter and illustrator who developed a popular line in ghost paintings during the 1870s. Later in her life she turned her attention to corrective garments such as Claxton’s Ear Caps.

Aepyornis Island

A short story by H. G. Wells, first published in the Christmas 1894 edition of the Pall Mall Budget. It can be read as a Robinsonade, a parable on the theme of loneliness, or simply a ripping yarn in the manner of Rudyard Kipling.

Aero 3S

The Aero 3s is a re-bodied and more aerodynamic version of the Campagna T-Rex, introduced by Anibal Automotive Design of Canada in 2006.

Agnes Sampson

Scottish midwife, cunning woman and healer; central figure in the North Berwick witch trials

Agnes Waterhouse, witch

Elderly Essex woman convicted and hanged for witchcraft at Chelmsford in 1566.


Akroydon was a model village developed near Edward Akroyd’s Bankfield mansion in Haley Hill, Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The houses are in blocks of six to ten around the park in streets named after cathedral cities

Alhambra Theatre, Manchester

The Alhambra Theatre in Higher Openshaw, Manchester, England, was designed by the architect H. A, Turner. Intended for use as a music hall, it was opened in 1910 as part of the H. D. Moorhouse Theatre Circuit.

Alice Nutter

Alice Nutter was one of the 11 men and women found guilty
of causing harm by witchcraft in the Pendle witch trials of 1612. She was unique among the accused in being a respectable wealthy widow.

Alison Pearson, witch

Scottish woman found guilty of sorcery, witchcraft and invoking the spirits of the Devil in 1588, then strangled and burned

Allard Specials

Sydney Herbert Allard (1910–1966) was the designer and manufacturer of a series of one-off competition cars produced between 1934 and 1939, the first of which was CLK 5.

Allegory of Fortune

Allegory of Fortune, sometimes also named La Fortuna, is an oil painting on canvas that was created around 1658 or 1659 by the Italian baroque painter Salvator Rosa, which caused uproar when first exhibited publicly and almost got the painter jailed and excommunicated.

Allison Balfour

The 1594 trial of alleged witch Allison Balfour is one of the most frequently cited Scottish witchcraft cases.

Ambrose Barlow

Ambrose Edward Barlow (1585 – 10 September 1641) was an English Benedictine monk who is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church.

Ancient parish

Ancient or ancient ecclesiastical parishes encompassed groups of villages and hamlets and their adjacent lands over which a clergyman had jurisdiction.

Ancoats Hall

Ancoats Hall was a post-medieval country house built in 1609 in Ancoats, Manchester by Oswald Mosley, a member of the family who were Lords of the Manor of Manchester.

Andrew Knowles & Sons

Andrew Knowles and Sons was a coal mining company that operated on the Manchester Coalfield in and around Clifton, in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

Angels of Mons

Angels who were widely reported as having defended the British Expeditionary Force against overwhelming odds in the first major engagement of the First World War, the Battle of Mons, on Sunday 23 August 1914.

Anne Jefferies

Young Cornish servant girl endowed with the power to heal and prophetise after being visited by fairies

Anne Vaux

Anne Vaux (c. 1562 – in or after 1637) was a wealthy Catholic recusant. She was a relative of Francis Tresham, one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 to blow up the Houses of Parliament, but had no direct involvement in the plot herself.

Annie Kenney

Annie Kenney (1879–1953) was an English working-class suffragette, the poster girl of the Women’s Social and Political Union.

Anti urination devices in Norwich

Devices installed in Norwich during the late 19th century to discourage public urination.

Antoine Wiertz

Antoine Wiertz (1806–1865) was a Belgian Romantic painter and sculptor. His output, featuring such macabre scenes as violent suicide and premature burial has persuaded some critics to consider it the work of a madman.

Apotropaic eye

The apotropaic eye is one of a number of signs used to ward off occult forms of evil such as spirits or demons.

Apotropaic magic

Apotropaic magic is a form of magic with the power to avert evil influences; belief in such a form of magic has existed since at least the beginning of written history.

Arkley S/SS

The Arkley SS is a re-bodied Austin Healey Sprite/MG Midget, launched in 1971 by John Britten Garages Ltd of Arkley, Hertfordshire.

Arsenic Act 1851

The Arsenic Act 1851 (14 & 15 Vict c. 13) was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament in 1851, during the reign of Queen Victoria in response increasing public concern over accidental and deliberate arsenic poisonings.

Art & architecture

Arthington Priory

Arthington Priory, founded in the mid-12th century, was a nunnery or convent that was home to a community of about ten nuns in Arthington, Yorkshire.

Arthur Griffiths

Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (9 December 1838 – 24 March 1908) was a British military officer, prison administrator and author who published more than sixty books during his lifetime. He was also a military historian who wrote extensively about the wars of the 19th century.

Assipattle and the Stoor worm

Battle between Assipattle and a gigantic sea serpent known as the stoor worm

Astley and Bedford Mosses

Astley and Bedford Mosses are areas of peat bog south of the Bridgewater Canal and north of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in Astley and Bedford, Leigh, England.

Astley and Tyldesley Collieries

The Astley and Tyldesley Collieries Company was formed in 1900. It became part of Manchester Collieries in 1929, and some of its collieries were nationalised in 1947.

Astrological medicine

Astrological botany is based on the notion that if plants or seeds are to be used for medicinal purposes then their planting and collection must be carried out with regard to the positions of the planets and other heavenly bodies, which are at the heart of the disease process.

Athenodoros and the ghost

Athenenodorus (c. 74 BCE – 7 AD) was a Stoic philosopher and the subject of the first recorded ghost story.

Atherton Hall

Atherton Hall was a country house and estate in Atherton in Lancashire, England, built between 1723 and 1742

Atherton Urban District

Atherton Urban District was from 1894 to 1974 a local government district in Lancashire, England.

Atterbury Plot

The Atterbury Plot (1721–1722) was a conspiracy named after Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, aimed at restoring the House of Stuart to the throne of Great Britain.


Babs is the land-speed record car that was built and driven by John Parry-Thomas to a world land-speed record in 1926.

Back-to-back house

A form of terraced houses in the United Kingdom, each sharing party walls on three of their four sides.

Bank Hall Colliery

Bank Hall Colliery was a coal mine near the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Burnley, Lancashire.

Barbara Napier, witch

Barbara Napier or sometimes Barbara Naper (c. 1554 – sometime between 1592 to 1600) was an Edinburgh woman accused of witchcraft and conspiracy to murder in the series of trials from 1590 until 1592 that become known as the North Berwick witch trials.

Barnfield Mills

Barnfield Mills, locally known as ”Caleb Wright’s”, was a complex of six cotton spinning mills on either side of Union Street in Tyldesley.

Barrow Bridge

Barrow Bridge is a model village started by John and Robert Lord who built a cotton mill next to the Dean Brook in the north-west outskirts of Bolton in Greater Manchester, England.

Bartholomew Binns

Bartholomew Binns (1839–1911) was an English executioner from November 1883 to March 1884.

Barton Aqueduct

The Barton Aqueduct, designed by James Brindley and opened on 17 July 1761, carried the Bridgewater Canal over the River Irwell at Barton-upon-Irwell, in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

Barton Swing Aqueduct

The Barton Swing Aqueduct in Barton upon Irwell, Greater Manchester, England carries the Bridgewater Canal across the Manchester Ship Canal.

Battle of Howe Bridge

The Battle of Howe Bridge took place on 4 February 1881 against the background of an acrimonious strike by 50,000 miners from pits on the Lancashire coalfield that was characterised by mobs of miners picketing working pits.

BBC Northern Dance Orchestra

The BBC Northern Dance Orchestra (NDO) was formed in 1955 as the successor to the BBC’s Northern Variety Orchestra, but without the latter’s string section. The NDO was disbanded in 1974.

Bealings Bells

Bealings Bells is an early modern poltergeist phenomenon that is reported to have taken place in Bealings House, Suffolk, in 1834.

Beast of Buchan

Big cat or phantom cat

Bedford Colliery explosion

The Bedford Colliery disaster occurred on Friday 13 August 1886 when an explosion of firedamp caused the death of thirty-eight miners at Bedford No.2 Pit in Leigh, on the Lancashire Coalfield.


A beerhouse was a type of public house created in the United Kingdom by the 1830 Beerhouse Act, legally defined as a place “where beer is sold to be consumed on the premises”.

Beeston Castle

Beeston Castle in Beeston, Cheshire, England was built in the 1220s by Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, (1170–1232), on his return from the Fifth Crusade.

Belle Vue Zoological Gardens

Belle Vue Zoological Gardens was a large zoo, amusement park, exhibition hall complex and speedway stadium in Belle Vue, Manchester, England, opened in 1836.

Belmont Hall

Belmont Hall is an 18th-century country house one mile northwest of the village of Great Budworth, Cheshire, England. It has been in the possession of the Leigh family for more than 200 years.

Benefit of clergy

Benefit of clergy was the legally enshrined right of any clergyman facing prosecution for a felony in a royal court to have the case heard instead in an ecclesiastical court.

Benefit of Clergy Act 1575

The Benefit of Clergy Act, 1575 removed the right of those charged with rape or burglary to claim benefit of clergy, and so to be tried in an ecclesiastical court.

Bentley Grange

Shaft mounds and earthworks south of Bentley Grange Farm are the remains of a medieval iron mining site between Emley and West Bretton in West Yorkshire.

Bentley’s Miscellany

Bentley’s Miscellany was an illustrated monthly magazine published from 1837 until 1868.

Berners Street hoax

The Berners Street hoax was perpetrated by Theodore Hook in Westminster, England, in 1810. Hook had made a bet with his friend, Samuel Beazley, that he could transform any house in London into the most talked-about address in a week, which he achieved by sending out thousands of letters in the name of Mrs Tottenham, who lived at 54 Berners Street, requesting deliveries, visitors, and assistance.

Bile Beans

Bile Beans was a laxative and tonic first marketed in the 1890s. The product supposedly contained substances extracted from a hitherto unknown vegetable source by a fictitious chemist known as Charles Forde.

Black cat

The numerous folk beliefs about black cats, and cats in general, are often contradictory. Superstitions surrounding black cats are almost certainly some of the most prevalent even today, along with the number thirteen and walking under a ladder.

Black Friday (1910)

Black Friday was a suffragette demonstration in London on 18 November 1910, in which 300 women marched to the Houses of Parliament as part of their campaign to secure voting rights.

Blackjack Cars

Blackjack Cars, founded by Richard Oakes in 1996, is a manufacturer of three-wheeled kit cars based in Helston, Cornwall, England.

Blackstone Edge

Blackstone Edge is a gritstone escarpment at 1,549 feet above sea level in the South Pennine hills.

Bloody Code

The Bloody Code is a name given to the system of crimes and punishments in force in England during the 18th and early 19th centuries that resulted in the death penalty for offences that would today be considered minor.

Blue men of the Minch

Mythological creatures who look for sailors to drown and stricken boats to sink

Boggart Hole Clough

Boggart Hole Clough is a large woodland area and country park in Greater Manchester, what remains of an ancient woodland.

Bolton and Leigh Railway

The Bolton and Leigh Railway (B&LR), Lancashire’s first public railway, was promoted as a mineral line in connection with William Hulton’s coal pits to the west of his estate at Over Hulton.

Bond Bug

The Bond Bug is a small British two-seat, three-wheeled automobile, built from 1970 to 1974 by the Reliant Motor Company. Based on a modified version of the Reliant Robin chassis, with mechanical components from the Reliant Regal, its distinctive feature is its bright tangerine wedge-shaped body.


An inhabitant of the lochs of the west coast of Scotland, the boobrie is a mythological shapeshifting entity.

Boothstown Mines Rescue Station

Boothstown Mines Rescue Station, which served the collieries of the Lancashire and Cheshire Coal Owners on the Lancashire Coalfield, opened in November 1933 on a site in Boothstown, close to the East Lancashire Road (A580).

Borley Rectory

Borley Rectory was a Victorian house that gained fame as “the most haunted house in England” after being described as such by psychic researcher Harry Price.


Bottomry is an early form of maritime insurance, now defunct.

Bradford Colliery

Bradford Colliery was a coal mine in Bradford, Manchester, England.

Bradford Colliery Brickworks

Bradford Colliery Brickworks operated on the site of the Bradford Colliery in Bradford, Greater Manchester, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England,

Bretton Hall

Bretton Hall is a country house on the north slope of the valley of the River Dearne in West Bretton near Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England.

Brick tax

A tax on bricks was introduced in Great Britain in 1784 during the reign of King George III, to help pay for the American War of Independence. I was abolished in 1850.

Bridgewater Collieries

A coal mining company on the Lancashire Coalfield with headquarters in Walkden near Manchester.

Brig o’ Doon

The Brig o’ Doom is a late medieval bridge in Ayrshire, Scotland, best known as the setting for the final verse of Robert Burns’s poem Tam o’ Shanter.

British Gas Traction Company

The British Gas Traction Company was incorporated on 13 July 1896 to operate gas-powered trams, which it worked initially on the Blackpool, St. Annes and Lytham tramway, the first such tramway in Britain.

British Premonitions Bureau

The British Premonitions Bureau was set up by the psychiatrist John Barker in 1966 in the wake of the Aberfan disaster. Its aim was to collect premonitions from members of the public in the hope of being able to issue warnings about similar tragedies in the future.

Broadspeed GT 2+2

The Broadspeed GT 2+2 is a Mini-based fastback-styled motor vehicle designed by Tony Bloor, Broadspeed’s sales manager.

Brown Lady of Raynham Hall

The Brown Lady is a ghost said to haunt Raynham Hall in Norfolk, and the subject of perhaps the most famous ghost photograph ever taken.

Buckland B3

The Buckland B3 is a three-wheeler car designed and built by Dick Buckland from 1985 until 1999.

Built-up area

A categorisation of UK census data that corresponds more closely to the traditional towns, villages and cities that people associate with where they live than do the administrative boundaries.

Burke and Hare murders

The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 killings committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland. They were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures.

Burning of women in England

Burning was a legal punishment imposed on women found guilty of high treason, petty treason or heresy. Over a period of several centuries, female convicts were publicly burnt at the stake, sometimes alive, for a range of activities including coining and mariticide.

Burning wells

Burning wells were a phenomenon known in the area around Wigan in Lancashire from at least the 17th century.

Burnley Coalfield

The Burnley Coalfield surrounding Burnley, Nelson, Blackburn and Accrington, is the most northerly portion of the Lancashire Coalfield.

Burying in Woollens Acts

There were three Burying in Woollens Acts passed during the 17th century, to support the domestic woollen trade in the face of increasing competition from foreign imports

Bute witches

Six Scottish women accused of witchcraft on Bute during the Great Scottish Witch Hunt of 1661–62.

Byrom, Allen, Sedgwick and Place

Byrom, Allen, Sedgwick and Place was the first bank in Manchester, founded in 1771. It collapsed in 1788 when one of its major borrowers declared bankruptcy.


The Cailleach is an ancient Celtic hag goddess who in her various guises shaped the land, controlled the forces of nature, and was responsible for the harsh nature of winter.


The Cambro was a three-wheeled, single-seat cyclecar made in 1921 by the Central Aircraft Company of Northolt, Middlesex. It was one of the cheapest cars on the market.

Caphouse Colliery

Caphouse Colliery was a coal mine in Overton, near Wakefield, West Yorkshire, now the National Coal Mining Museum for England.

Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868

The Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868 (31 & 32 Vict. c.24) received Royal Assent on 29 May 1868, putting an end to public executions for murder in the United Kingdom.

Capitol Theatre, Manchester

The Capitol Theatre was a cinema in Didsbury, Manchester later used as television studios by ITV contractor ABC from 1956 to 1968.

Carolina Nairne

Carolina Oliphant, Lady Nairne (16 August 1766 – 26 October 1845) was a Scottish songwriter. Many of her songs, such as “Will ye no’ come back again?” and “Charlie is my Darling”, remain popular today, almost two hundred years after they were written.

Carrington Moss

Carrington Moss is a large area of peat bog near Carrington in Greater Manchester, England. Originally an area of grouse moorland, it was reclaimed in the latter half of the 19th for farming and the disposal of Manchester’s waste.


A caryatid is a sculpted female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as an architectural support, taking the place of a column or pillar.

Castle Hill

Castle Hill is a scheduled ancient monument overlooking Huddersfield in Kirklees, West Yorkshire.

Cat and Mouse Act 1913

Formally known as The Prisoners Temporary Discharge for Ill Health Act, the Cat and Mouse Act of 1913 was intended to deal with the public outcry resulting from the treatment of suffragettes who went on hunger strike while in prison.

Cat Sith

The cat sith is a fairy cat of the Highlands of Scotland, black and as large as a dog.

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Catherine Hayes

Catherine Hayes née Hall (1690–1726), was the last woman in England to be executed by being burned alive.

Certain Personal Matters

Certain Personal Matters is a collection of 39 humorous essays and articles by H. G. Wells published in 1897.

Chaddock Pit

Pit sunk around 1820 by the Bridgewater Trustees that was connected to the Bridgewater Canal at Boothstown Basin by an underground canal.

Chambers Book of Days

Chambers Book of Days was the last major work produced by the Scottish writer and publisher Robert Chambers (1802–1871).

Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal

Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal was a weekly 16-page magazine started by William Chambers in 1832.

Chantry Chapel of St Mary the Virgin

The Chantry Chapel of St Mary the Virgin, usually known as Wakefield Chantry Chapel, is part of the medieval bridge over the River Calder in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England.

Charles White, physician

Charles White FRS (4 October 1728 – 20 February 1813) was an English physician and a co-founder of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, along with local industrialist Joseph Bancroft.

Chat Moss

Chat Moss is a large area of peat bog that makes up 30 per cent of the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England.

Cheetham Close

Cheetham Close, a hill in the West Pennine Moors above Turton in Lancashire, is the site of an ancient stone circle.

Cheshire acre

A Cheshire acre is a historical measure of area that was used in the 19th century.

Cheshire cat

The Cheshire cat is a fictional character that appears in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865).


Chiaroscuro, literally light-dark in Italian, is a technique used in the visual arts that makes use of light and shadow to define three-dimensional objects and surfaces.

Chigwell Hall

Grade II listed manor house in Chigwell, Essex, owned by the Metropolitan Police Service and serving as it sports and social club.

Chorlton Poor Law Union

Chorlton Poor Law Union was founded in January 1837 in response to the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, also known as the New Poor Law. It was overseen by an elected board of 19 guardians representing the 12 parishes in the area it served: Ardwick, Burnage, Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Chorlton with Hardy, Didsbury, Gorton, Hulme, Levenshulme, Mosside, Rusholme, Stretford, and Withington, all in south Manchester, England.

Christopher Saxton

Christopher Saxton (c. 1542 – c. 1610) was an English cartographer who produced the first county maps of England and Wales.

Church grim

The church grim is a spirit that protects graveyards from witches and the Devil, usually appearing as a black dog.

Churche’s Mansion

A timber-framed, black-and-white Elizabethan mansion house in Nantwich, Cheshire, England, one of the very few buildings to have survived the Great Fire of Nantwich in 1583.


Chysauster is an ancient settlement and scheduled monument on the upper slopes of the Carnaquidden Downs in the Penwith District of southwest Cornwall in England.


Circe is the title given to two oil on canvas sketches by the English artist John William Waterhouse; he worked on both during the final years of his career from 1911 to 1914.

Circe Invidiosa

Circe Invidiosa is a painting by John William Waterhouse completed in 1892. It is his second depiction of the Greek mythological character, Circe.

Circe Offering the Cup to Ulysses

An oil painting in the Pre-Raphaelite style by John William Waterhouse, created in 1891.

Cistercian ware

A type of earthenware pottery manufactured in England in the 16th and 17th centuries.


A guide to the  {{sfnp}} plugin.

Civil parish

A civil parish is the smallest administrative unit in England.

Cleworth Hall Colliery

Cleworth Hall Colliery on the Lancashire Coalfield operated between 1880 and 1963 in Tyldesley, Lancashire, England.

Cluny Castle

Cluny Castle was originally built in about 1604 as a Z-plan castle replacing either a house or small peel tower. Sited in the parish of Cluny, it is south of Monymusk and north of Sauchen in Aberdeenshire, north-east Scotland.

Coal mining terms

This is a partial glossary of common coal mining terms used in the United Kingdom. Some words were in use throughout the coalfields, some are historic and others are local to the different British coalfields.

Cock Lane ghost

The Cock Lane ghost was a purported haunting that attracted mass public attention in 1762.

Combermere Colliery

Combermere Colliery was sunk by the Tyldesley Coal Company on the Manchester Coalfield after 1867 in Shakerley, Tyldesley in Lancashire, England.

Combination Acts

The Combination Acts were passed by the Tory government of William Pitt the Younger in response to its fear of unrest or revolution among the working classes. They banned workers from combining to form trade unions and prevented them from striking, calling for shorter hours or increased pay.

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Commonwealth (Adultery) Act 1650

An Act passed by the Rump Parliament in 1650, making fornication, adultery and incest secular offences.

Concealed shoes

Concealed shoes hidden in the fabric of a building have been discovered in many European countries, as well as in other parts of the world, since at least the early modern period.

Convent of Poor Clares, Gravelines

The Convent of Poor Clares at Gravelines in the Spanish Netherlands (now in northern France), founded in 1607 by Mary Ward, was a community of English nuns of the Order of St Clare. Commonly called the Poor Clares, the order was founded in 1212 by Saint Clare of Assisi.

Convert units of measurement

A guide to the {{convert}} plugin.

Cookie policy (UK)

Our website uses cookies and other related technologies (for convenience all technologies are referred to as “cookies”). Cookies are also placed by third parties we have engaged. In this document we inform you about the use of cookies on our website.


Copley was a built as a model village by Colonel Edward Akroyd in the Calder Valley to the south of Halifax in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Licensing terms

Cotswold Olimpick Games

The Cotswold Olimpick Games is an annual public celebration of games and sports held on the Friday after Spring Bank Holiday near Chipping Campden, in the Cotswolds of England.

Cottingley Fairies

The Cottingley Fairies appear in a series of five photographs taken by Elsie Wright (1901–1988) and Frances Griffiths (1907–1986), two cousins who lived in Cottingley, near Bradford in England.


The nickname given to Manchester, the world’s first industrial city, a metropolis centred on cotton trading.

Crathes Castle

Crathes Castle, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland is a classic Scottish tower house, built in the 16th century.

Creswell Model Village

Creswell Model Village is an arts and crafts style model industrial settlement in Creswell in the parish of Elmton-with-Creswell in the Bolsover district in northeast Derbyshire.

Crewe Chronicle

The Crewe Chronicle, originally known as the Crewe and Nantwich Chronicle, is a UK weekly newspaper first published on 21 March 1874.


Estate near Crimond, Aberdeenshire, dating back to the 14th century

Cymon and Iphigenia (painting)

Cymon and Iphigenia is an undated oil on canvas painting by the English artist Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton.


Damhouse or Astley Hall is a Grade II* Listed building in Tyldesley but considered to be in Astley, Greater Manchester, England. It has served as a manor house, sanatorium, and, since restoration in 2000, houses offices, a clinic and tearooms.


Damps is the collective name given to all gases other than air found in coal mines in Great Britain. The chief pollutants are carbon dioxide and methane, known as blackdamp and firedamp respectively.

Dancing mania

Dancing mania (also known as dancing plague, choreomania, St. John’s Dance and St. Vitus’s Dance) was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time.

Database queries

Utility to find which articles contain a specified Zotero ID.

David Gregory

David Gregory (20 December 1625 – 1720) was a Scottish physician and inventor.

De heretico comburendo

De heretico comburendo (2 Hen. IV c. 15), was a law passed in 1401 during the reign of King Henry IV, allowing heretics to be burned alive.


Denbies is a large estate to the northwest of Dorking in Surrey, England. A farmhouse and surrounding land originally owned by John Denby was purchased in 1734 by Jonathan Tyers, the proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens in London, and converted into a weekend retreat.

Derby Trader

The Derby Trader was the UK’s first free newspaper, founded in 1966 by Lionel Pickering and Tony Mather, who became its first editor.

Devil’s door

Devil’s doors are blocked-up doors in the north wall of a church, once believed to have been an escape route for the Devil when he left a child as a result of the sacrament of baptism.

Devil’s Knell

Ringing the Devil’s Knell is a custom associated with Dewsbury Minster in West Yorkshire, England.

Diana Beaumont

Diana Beaumont (1765–1831) née Wentworth was the eldest illegitimate daughter of Sir Thomas Wentworth of Bretton Hall near Wakefield in Yorkshire.

Dick Turpin

Dick Turpin was an English highwayman whose exploits were romanticised following his execution in York for horse theft. In the popular imagination he is best remembered for a fictional 200-mile ride from London to York on his horse Black Bess.

Diseases Prevention (Metropolis) Act 1883

The Diseases Prevention (Metropolis) Act (46 & 47 Vict c 35) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1883, during the reign of Queen Victoria.

Doctrine of signatures

The doctrine of signatures, originally advocated by the Roman naturalist and natural philosopher Pliny, is the observation that the form of a medicinal plant in some way resembles the organ or disease it can be used to treat, an idea that became common during the medieval period.

Donner Party

The Donner Party (sometimes called the Donner-Reed Party) was a group of American pioneers who set out for California in a wagon train. Delayed by a series of mishaps, they spent the winter of 1846–1847 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada, where some of them resorted to cannibalism to survive.

Dorothy Dene

Dorothy Dene was an English stage actress. A protégé of Frederic Leighton, she modelled for several of his paintings.

Dorothy Legh

Dorothy Legh (1565–1639) born Dorothy Egerton, also Dorothy Brereton, Lady of the Manor of Worsley, was a coal owner and benefactor of Ellenbrook Chapel near her home in Worsley, Lancashire.

Dorothy Levitt

Dorothy Elizabeth Levitt, born in 1882, was the first British woman racing driver and a women’s world land speed record holder. In 1905 she also established the record for the longest drive by a lady driver when she drove a De Dion-Bouton from London to Liverpool and back over two days.

Dovestone Reservoirs

Dovestone and its associated reservoirs occupy the valleys of the Greenfield and Chew Brooks above the village of Greenfield, on Saddleworth Moor in Greater Manchester.

DRK (car)

The DRK is a three-wheeled kit car produced by DRK Kits of Ellesmere Port, England, between 1987 and 1998.

Dunecht House

A stately home on the Dunecht estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

Dunham Castle

An early medieval moated motte and bailey castle just to the northwest of present-day Dunham Massey Hall in Greater Manchester, England.

Dunham Massey Hall

An English country house near Altrincham, in Greater Manchester, surrounded by historic formal gardens and a deer park. Built in the early 18th century by the Earls of Warrington, passing to the Earls of Stamford by inheritance, it has been owned by the National Trust since the death of the 10th and last Earl of Stamford in 1976.

Eastbourne manslaughter

The Eastbourne manslaughter, formally Regina v. Hopley, is an 1860 legal case concerning the death of 15-year-old Reginald Cancellor at the hands of his teacher, Thomas Hopley.

Eccles cake

The Eccles cake, named after the town in Lancashire where it was first made, is a confection made of flaky pastry filled with currants.


Ectoplasm is a gelatinous substance that exudes from the body of a spiritualist medium during a seance, which the spirits being communicated with are able to mould into shapes allowing them to communicate with the living.

Edmund Hartley

Edmund Hartley, (died March 1597), the Tyldesley witch, was a cunning man who was alleged to have practised witchcraft at Cleworth Hall in Tyldesley, Lancashire for a year in 1595–96. Hartley was hanged, twice, after a trial at Lancaster Assizes in March 1597. Part of the evidence against him was that under interrogation he was unable to recite the Lord’s Prayer.

Edward Akroyd

Edward Akroyd (1810–1887), industrialist, politician and philanthropist, was born at Brockholes near Halifax to Jonathan Akroyd (1782–1847) and his wife, Sarah Wright.

Edward Ormerod

Edward Ormerod (2 May 1834 – 26 May 1894) was an English mining engineer and inventor who worked at Gibfield Colliery in Atherton, Lancashire where he devised and tested his safety device, the Ormerod safety link or detaching hook.

Egyptian days

Egyptian days, also known as Dismal days after the Latin dies mali (“evil days”), are days of the year that are considered to be unlucky to carry out any important undertaking such as getting married or travelling.

Eilmer of Malmesbury

Eilmer of Malmesbury was a Benedictine monk who became the first European aviator when between 1000 and 1010 AD he jumped from the summit of a tower with wings fastened to his hands and feet; gliding for a distance of about 600 ft.

Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick

Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick, (née Balfour; 11 March 1845 – 10 February 1936) was a physics researcher, an activist for the higher education of women, Principal of Newnham College of the University of Cambridge, and a leading figure in the Society for Psychical Research.

Eleanor Thornton

Eleanor Velasco Thornton (15 April 1880 – 30 December 1915) was an English actress and artist’s model, who may have been the inspiration for the Rolls-Royce flying lady mascot.


An elemental is a type of primitive spiritual entity from the pagan past, perhaps the manifestation of a race memory, usually associated with a single place.

Elizabeth Ann Linley

Singer who possessed great beauty, was the subject of several paintings, a poet and writer

Elizabeth Cresswell

Elizabeth Cresswell (c. 1625 – c. 1698), also known as Mother Creswell and Madam Cresswell of Clerkenwell, was one of the most successful prostitutes and brothel keepers in 17th-century England.

Elizabeth Francis, witch

Elizabeth Francis was an English woman tried three times for witchcraft and hanged in 1579.

Elizabeth Mallett

Elizabeth Mallet (fl. 1672–1706) was a printer and bookseller who produced Britain’s first daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, the first issue of which appeared on 11 March 1702.

Elizabeth Mortlock (witch)

Elizabeth Mortlock was a woman from the small farming village of Pampisford, in Cambridgeshire, convicted of witchcraft in an ecclestiastical court in Ely in 1566.

Elizabeth Raffald

18th-century English entrepreneur, author of The Experienced English Housekeeper, and possible inventor of the Eccles cake.

Elizabeth Tyldesley

Elizabeth Tyldesley (1585–1654) was a 17th-century abbess at the Poor Clare Convent at Gravelines.

Elizeus Hall

Elizeus Hall (1502–1565), was a prophet and false messiah who claimed to be a messenger from God. He was born in Manchester, England, in 1502, the son of a carpenter.

Elleine Smithe, witch

Essex woman convicted and hanged for witchcraft in 1579

Ellesmere Colliery

Ellesmere Colliery in Walkden, on the Lancashire Coalfield, was sunk in 1865 by the Bridgewater Trustees. Production ended in 1923.

Elsecar engine

A steam-driven Newcomen-type atmospheric pumping engine still in its original engine house at Elsecar near Barnsley. Designed by John Bargh of Chesterfield, the engine, is based on one invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712.

Elspeth Reoch

Scottish woman who confessed to witchcraft and deceiving islanders by pretending she was mute

Emery GT

The Emery GT was the first Hillman Imp-based kit car.

Emic and etic

Emic and etic are terms used to describe two different kinds of field research in a wide field of studies, from the view of the insider or the observer respectively.

Emily Ford

Emily Susan Ford (1850–1930), artist and campaigner for women’s rights, was born into a Quaker family in Leeds. She trained as an artist at the Slade School of Art and exhibited at the Royal Academy.

Emma Lister-Kaye

Emma Lister-Kaye (1825–1905) was a colliery owner in Overton near Wakefield in the West Riding of Yorkshire from 1871 until 1905.

English Mechanic

The English Mechanic is the UK’s first kit car.

English Setter

Medium-size breed of dog which, according to the breed standard, should ideally have an elegant appearance

Enid Blyton

Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children’s writer whose books have been among the world’s best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies. Blyton’s books are still enormously popular, and have been translated into 90 languages.

Epworth Rectory

Epworth Rectory in Epworth, Lincolnshire, also known as the Old Rectory, is the site of supposed paranormal events that occurred in 1716.

Ernest Terah Hooley

Ernest Terah Hooley (5 February 1859 – 11 February 1947) was an English financier who specialised in acquiring companies and then reselling them at inflated prices, making himself substantial profits in the process.

Ernest W. Marwick

Scottish writer, folklorist and antiquarian particularly noted for his texts on Orkney folklore and history

Esther Kenworthy Waterhouse

English artist, specialist in flower painting; her husband was fellow artist John William Waterhouse

Ethel Beatty

Socialite and member of the aristocracy

Euphame MacCalzean

Wealthy Scottish heiress and member of the gentry convicted of witchcraft. A key figure in the North Berwick witchcraft trials of 1590–1591.

Evelyn Manesta

Evelyn Manesta was the name given by one of the three suffragettes arrested for damaging with hammers the glass of thirteen pictures in Manchester Art Gallery on 3 April 1913.

Fairbottom Bobs

Fairbottom Bobs, an 18th-century Newcomen-type beam engine, was used to pump water from a coal pit near Ashton-under-Lyne, is probably the world’s second-oldest surviving steam engine.

Fancy picture

A fancy picture is an 18th-century genre of painting, characteristically portraying an individual or group of individuals engaged in some everyday pursuit.


The farthing is a British coin with the value of one quarter of an old penny, 1/960 of a pound sterling.

Fasting spittle

Fasting spittle – saliva produced first thing in the morning, before breakfast – has been used to treat a wide variety of diseases for many hundreds of years.

Fletcher, Burrows & Company

Fletcher, Burrows & Company owned collieries and cotton mills in Atherton in northwest England. Gibfield, Howe Bridge and Chanters Collieries exploited the coal seams of the Middle Coal Measures in the Manchester Coalfield.

Flora MacDonald

Flora MacDonald (1722 – 4 March 1790) is a Jacobite heroine remembered for her role in the escape of the Young Pretender to the thrones of England and Scotland, Charles Edward Stewart, commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, after his defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.

Florence Nagle

Florence Nagle, (26 October 1894 – 30 October 1988) was a trainer and breeder of racehorses, a breeder of pedigree dogs, and an active feminist. She successfully challenged the well-established leading gentlemen’s clubs of the racing and canine worlds over their gender inequality, and in 1966 became one of the first two women in the United Kingdom licensed to train racehorses.


A fogou (or fougou) is an underground passage or tunnel constructed in the Iron Age by digging trenches and lining the sides with drystone walling.

Forest of Dean Coalfield

The Forest of Dean in west Gloucestershire contains one of the smaller coalfields in the British Isles which for hundreds of years was regulated by a system of freemining.

Forglen House

A mansion house that forms the centrepiece of the Forglen estate in the parish of Forglen, northwest of Turriff, Aberdeenshire, in the northeast of Scotland.

Four Feather Falls

Four Feather Falls was the third puppet television show produced by Gerry Anderson for Granada Television. It was based on an idea by Barry Gray, who also wrote the show’s music. The series was the first to use an early version of Anderson’s Supermarionation puppetry.

Frank Harris Fulford

Canadian-born entrepreneur, art collector and businessman

Frank Matcham

An English theatre architect and designer, responsible for the design and construction of more than ninety theatres and the redesign and refurbishment of a further eighty throughout the United Kingdom.

Frederic Leighton

Frederic Leighton was an English painter, knighted in 1878.

Free Trade Hall

The Free Trade Hall in Peter Street, Manchester, England, was a public hall constructed in 1853–1856 on St Peter’s Fields, the site of the Peterloo Massacre, and is now a Radisson hotel.

Fuji Cabin

The Fuji Cabin is a three-wheeled microcar produced by Fuji Toshuda Motors of Tokyo, Japan, from 1957 until 1958.


Galehaut, the Lord of the Distant Isles, is perhaps the most overlooked of King Arthur’s Knights of the Round Table. He makes his appearance in the series of anonymous 13th-century French romances known as the Lancelot-Grail, or the Vulgate Cycle, in which he is portrayed as a rival to Queen Guinevere for the love of Sir Lancelot.

Garrett Hall

Garrett Hall or the Garrett is a former manor house and now a grade II listed farmhouse in Tyldesley, Greater Manchester, England.

Gas Light

Gas Light is a 1938 play by Patrick Hamilton which has given rise to the term “gaslighting”, in which a victim is presented with false information making them doubt their own memory and perception.

Geillis Duncan, witch

Geillis Duncan, also known as Gillie Duncan, a young Scottish maidservant, was suspected of witchcraft by her employer, David Seton, in November 1590. After being tortured, the initial testimony she gave led to the start of the North Berwick witch trials.


George Arthur Ferguson, 6th Laird of Pitfour

George Arthur Ferguson, the 6th and final laird of the Pitfour estate in Aberdeenshire, the Blenheim of the North.

George Ferguson (Lt Governor of Tobago)

George Ferguson (1748 – 29 December 1820) was the fourth Laird of Pitfour, a large estate in the Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland which became known as The Blenheim of the North.

George Ferguson, 5th Laird of Pitfour

George Ferguson, the 5th laird of Pitfour in Aberdeenshire, was a Scottish officer of the Royal Navy and Tory politician.

George Marsh

George Marsh, a Protestant priest who became a martyr, was born in the parish of Deane near Bolton in 1515. He died at Boughton, Chester, on 24 April 1555 as a result of the Marian Persecutions during the reign of Queen Mary I.

George Ogilvy, 3rd Lord Banff

Inherited the lands of Inchdrewer and Montbray in 1668. He was murdered and his body burned at Inchdrewer Castle in 1713.

George Tutill

Artist and entrepreneur who started a business at the age of 20, manufacturing banners and regalia.

Gertrude Agnew

The socialite Gertrude Vernon, Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, gained prestige and notoriety from her portrait by artist John Singer Sargent.

Gin Pit Colliery

Gin Pit was a colliery that operated on the Lancashire Coalfield from the 1840s in Tyldesley Lancashire, England.

Glass tax

Two taxes on glass were introduced in England during the 1690s, the first on glass itself and the second on windows.


The golliwog (also gollywog, gollywogg) is a character invented by illustrator Florence Kate Upton which first appeared in The Adventures of Two Dutch Dolls and a Golliwogg (1895), illustrated by her and written by her mother Bertha Upton.

Gong farmer

Gong farmer (also gongfermor, gongfermour, gong-fayer, gong-fower or gong scourer) is a term that entered use in Tudor England to describe someone who dug out and removed human excrement from privies and cesspits; the word gong was used for both a privy and its contents.

Great Boys Colliery

Great Boys Colliery in Tyldesley was a coal mine operating on the Manchester Coalfield in the second half of the 19th century in Lancashire, England.

Great County Adit

The Great County Adit is a system of underground tunnels that drained tin and copper mines between Redruth and Bissoe in west Cornwall.

Great Flat Lode

The Great Flat Lode is a large ore-bearing body of rock under the southern slopes of Carn Brea, south of Camborne in Cornwall, England.

Great Haigh Sough

The Great Haigh Sough is a tunnel or adit driven under Sir Roger Bradshaigh’s Haigh Hall estate between 1653 and 1670, to drain his coal and cannel pits.

Great Moreton Hall

Great Moreton Hall is a former country house in Moreton cum Alcumlow near Congleton, in Cheshire, England, less than a mile (1.6 km) from its better-known near namesake Little Moreton Hall.

Green children of Woolpit

The green children of Woolpit were a boy and a girl of unusual skin colour who reportedly appeared in the village of Woolpit in Suffolk, England some time in the 12th century, perhaps during the reign of King Stephen.

Grenville Steam Carriage

The three-wheeled Grenville Steam Carriage was probably completed in about 1890. Capable of carrying four passengers, it did however require a crew of two – a fireman and a driver – to operate it.

Greyfriars Bobby

A Skye Terrier who supposedly spent fourteen years guarding the grave of his owner in 19th-century Edinburgh, until his own death on 14 January 1872.

Gropecunt Lane

Gropecunt Lane was a street name found in English towns and cities during the Middle Ages, believed to be a reference to the prostitution centred on those areas; it was normal practice for a medieval street name to reflect the street’s function or the economic activity taking place within it.

Grub Street

Once a London street famous for its low-end publishers and hack writers, Grub Street has become a pejorative term for impoverished writers and works of low literary value.


Gruel is any kind of roasted and crushed cereal moistened by being mixed with water or milk.

Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was an attempt to assassinate King James I and re-establish a Catholic monarchy by blowing up the House of Lords.

Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes was a member of the group of English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

H. G. Wells Bibliography

A list of the novels and short stories written by H. G. Wells during the more than fifty years of his literary career.

Haigh Foundry

An ironworks and foundry in Haigh near Wigan that was notable for the manufacture of steam engines.

Haigh Hall

Haigh Hall is a historic country house in Haigh, near Wigan in Greater Manchester England.

Halifax Gibbet

The Halifax Gibbet was an early guillotine, or decapitating machine, used in the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. It was probably installed during the 16th century as an alternative to beheading by axe or sword.

Halkett boat

A Halkett boat is a type of lightweight inflatable craft designed by Lt Peter Halkett (1820–1885) during the 1840s. When deflated, the hull can be used as a cloak, the oar as a walking stick, and the sail as an umbrella.

Hammersmith Ghost

An early 19th-century hoax that reinforced the standard white-sheeted ghost look, and set a legal precedent for self-defence.

Hanged, drawn and quartered

To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason.

Hanging Bridge

The Hanging Bridge is a medieval structure spanning the Hanging Ditch, which connected the rivers Irk and Irwell in Manchester, England, part of the city’s medieval defences.

Harper Runabout

The Harper Runabout is a three-wheeled motor vehicle designed by Robert Harper and manufactured from 1921 until 1926.

Harris’s List of Covent Garden Ladies

Harris’s List of Covent Garden Ladies, published from 1757 to 1795, was an annual directory of prostitutes then working in Georgian London.

Harry Liston

Harry Liston (1843–1929) was an English comedian and actor.

Haydock Collieries

Haydock Collieries comprised several pits, some started in the 18th century, on land owned by the Leghs of Lyme around Haydock on the Lancashire Coalfield in north-west England.

Henry Ernest Milner

English civil engineer and landscape architect

Henry Garnet

Henry Garnet was an English Jesuit priest executed for his complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

Hermia and Lysander

Hermia and Lysander is a watercolour painting created in 1870 by British illustrator and miniature portrait painter John Simmons.

Herring girls

Women and girls who travelled across Scotland to gut and pack fish in the fishing ports on the east coast of Britain.


Hob Moor

A local nature reserve and ancient common in York

Hogarth’s Act 1735

An Act of the Parliament of Great Britain to give copyright protections to the producers of engravings.

Hollingworth Lake

Hollingworth Lake was built as the main water source for the Rochdale Canal.

Holy Maid of Leominster

The Holy Maid of Leominster, known only as Elizabeth, was installed in the rood loft above the chancel of the priory of Leominster by its prior in the late 15th or early 16th century.

Hortus Sanitatis

The Hortus Sanitatis (also written Ortus, Latin for The Garden of Health), was the first natural history encyclopedia, published by Jacob Meydenbach in Mainz, Germany in 1491.

Howe Bridge Mines Rescue Station

Howe Bridge Mines Rescue Station, the first on the Lancashire Coalfield, opened in 1908 in Lovers Lane Howe Bridge, Atherton, Lancashire, England.

Hugh Stowell

Hugh Stowell (3 December 1799 – 8 October 1865) was a Church of England clergyman with a reputation as a vigorous firebrand of a preacher.

Hulme Arch Bridge

The Hulme Arch Bridge in Hulme, Manchester, England, supports Stretford Road as it passes over Princess Road, part of the regeneration of that area of Manchester.

Hulme Hall

Hulme Hall was a half-timbered manor house on the banks of the River Irwell in Manchester, demolished in about 1840.

Hulton Collieries

The Hulton Colliery Company operated on the Lancashire Coalfield from the mid-19th century in Over Hulton and Westhoughton, Lancashire.

Humphrey Chetham

Humphrey Chetham (1580–1653) was an English merchant responsible fr the creation of Chetham’s Hospital and Chetham’s Library, the oldest public library in the English-speaking world.

Humpty Dumpty

Humpty Dumpty is one of the best-known English nursery rhymes, almost certainly intended as a riddle.

Huskar Pit Disaster

The Huskar Pit disaster occurred on 4 July 1838 when twenty-six boys and girls who were working underground were drowned by an overflowing stream.

Hylas and the Nymphs

Hylas and the Nymphs is a painting by the English artist John William Waterhouse, exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in 1897. It shows the Greek hero Hylas being enticed to his death into a pool of water by a group of nymphs.

Images and captions

Inserting Images and captions.

Imperial War Museum North

The Imperial War Museum North (sometimes referred to as IWM North) is a museum in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester, England. One of five branches of the Imperial War Museum, it explores the impact of modern conflicts on people and society.

In the Abyss

“In the Abyss” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in the August 1896 edition of Pearson’s Magazine. It tells of a descent to the deep ocean bed and an encounter with a previously unknown undersea civilisation.

In the Avu Observatory

A short story by H. G. Wells, about an attack by a large bat-like creature on an assistant at an observatory in Borneo.


Inchcape or the Bell Rock is a reef about eleven miles (18 km) off the east coast of Angus, Scotland, near Dundee and Fife, occupied by the Bell Rock Lighthouse. The name Inchcape comes from the Scottish Gaelic Innis Sgeap, meaning “Beehive isle”, probably comparing the shape of the reef to old-style skep beehives.

Inchdrewer Castle

A 16th-century tower house in the parish of Banff, Aberdeenshire, in the northeast of Scotland.


An incubus is a demon in male form that seeks to have sexual intercourse with a sleeping woman.

Industry & technology

Inland Revenue Act 1880

The Inland Revenue Act 1880 (43 & 44 Vict. c. 20), also known as the Free Mash-Tun Act, full title An Act to repeal the duties on Malt, to grant and alter certain duties of Inland Revenue, and to amend the Laws in relation to certain other duties, was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament passed in 1880 during the reign of Queen Victoria.

Insolvent Debtors (England) Act 1813

The Insolvent Debtors (England) Act (53 Geo. 3 c 102) was an Act of Parliament passed by the United Kingdom Parliament in 1813, during the reign of King George III. It was enacted in response to the demands on the prison system imposed by the numbers of those being incarcerated for debt, and some concern for their plight.

Inspiration (car)

The Inspiration is the British World Land Speed Record holder for a steam-powered car, which it set in 2009.


Irlam is a built-up area in the City of Salford, Greater Manchester, England, historically in the county of Lancashire. Lying on flat ground on the south side of the M62 motorway and the north bank of the Manchester Ship Canal, Irlam’s geography is varied; the northern half is moss land, with a large farming community, whereas the southern half is predominantly residential.

Isabella Waterhouse

English portrait painter; mother of John William Waterhouse

Isobel Gowdie

Isobel Gowdie was accused of witchcraft in 1662; she was likely executed although that is uncertain. Her detailed testimony provides one of the most comprehensive insights into European witchcraft folklore at the end of the era of witch-hunts.

J. C. Prestwich

James Caldwell Prestwich (1852–1940) was an English architect. He was born in Atherton, Lancashire and educated at Leigh and Nantwich Grammar Schools.

Jack Crouch

British racing jockey who died in aircraft crash

James Burton

James Burton (1784–1868) was the owner of several cotton mills in Tyldesley and Hindsford in the mid-19th century.

James Ferguson (Scottish politician)

James Ferguson (25 May 1735 – 6 September 1820) was a Scottish advocate and Tory politician and the third Laird of Pitfour, a large estate in the Buchan area of northeast Scotland, which is known as the ‘Blenheim of the North’.

James Ferguson, 1st Laird of Pitfour

Scottish lawyer and the 1st Laird of Pitfour, a large estate in the Buchan area of north-east Scotland.

James Ferguson, Lord Pitfour

James Ferguson, Lord Pitfour was a Scottish advocate and second Laird of Pitfour, a large estate in Buchan. He was elevated to the bench in 1764.

James Humphreys (pornographer)

William Humphreys was an English business and criminal who ran a chain of adult book shops and strip clubs in London. He was able to operate his business by bribing serving police officers.

James Wood

James Wood (1672–1759) was a Presbyterian minister of the first Atherton and Chowbent Chapels in Atherton, Lancashire, England.

Jamie Fleeman

Jamie Fleeman or Fleeming (1713–1778) was better known as “the Laird of Udny’s Fool” or “the Laird of Udny’s Fule” in the Scots language.

Jane Wenham

Jane Wenham was the last person to be condemned for witchcraft in an English court, when she was found guilty at Hertford in 1712.

Janet Boyman

A Scottish woman found guilty and executed for witchcraft and associating with fairies

Janet Kennedy, witch

Janet or Jonet Kennedy from Redden or Reydon was a Scottish visionary involved in the North Berwick witch trials of 1590–1591.

Jean Adam

Jean Adam (30 April 1704 – 3 April 1765) was a Scottish poet whose best-known work is “There’s Nae Luck Aboot The Hoose”.

Jean Maxwell, sorceress

A Scottish cunning woman convicted of pretending to practise witchcraft

Jennifer Westwood

Jennifer Westwood (5 January 1940 – 12 May 2008) was a British author, broadcaster and folklorist with a particular interest in English Language, Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse.

Jenny Greenteeth

Jenny Greenteeth, or Ginny Greenteeth, is a water spirit said to inhabit pools in Cheshire, Lancashire and Shropshire. If children venture too close, then she reaches out of the water and drags them in to their deaths.

Jerome Caminada

Jerome Caminada (1844 – March 1914) was a 19th-century police detective in Manchester, England. Caminada served with the police between 1868 and 1899, and has been called Manchester’s Sherlock Holmes.

Jessie Saxby

Jessie Margaret Saxby was an author and folklorist from Unst, one of the Shetland Islands of Scotland. She also had political interests and was a suffragette.

Jimmy Goggles the God

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1898, about a treasure hunter who because of his diving suit is mistaken for a god.

John Blenkinsop

John Blenkinsop (1783 – 22 January 1831) was a mining engineer at Charles Brandling’s Middleton Collieries who patented a rack and pinion system for a steam locomotive and commissioned the first practical railway locomotive from Fenton, Murray and Wood’s Round Foundry in Holbeck, Leeds in 1811.

John Fian

School teacher convicted of witchcraft in 1590, a central figure in the North Berwick witch trials

John Frederick Bateman

John Frederick La Trobe Bateman FRSE FRS MICE FRGS FGS FSA (30 May 1810 – 10 June 1889) was an English civil engineer whose work formed the basis of the modern United Kingdom water supply industry.

John Greenwood

John Greenwood (1788–1851) was the keeper of a toll-gate in Pendleton on the Manchester to Liverpool turnpike, who In 1824 inaugurated the United Kingdom’s first omnibus service.

John Gregorson Campbell

John Gregorson Campbell (1836 – 22 November 1891) was a Scottish folklorist and Free Church minister at the Tiree and Coll parishes in Argyll, Scotland.

John Grundy Limited

John Grundy Limited was a company of heating engineeers and ironfounders started in Tyldesley, Lancashire in 1857.

John Hall-Edwards

John Francis Hall-Edwards FRSE (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a British physician and pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.

John Holker

John Holker (1719 – 27 April 1786) was a Jacobite soldier, industrialist, and one of the world’s first industrial espionage agents, born in Stretford, England, to blacksmith John Holker and his wife Alice.

John Kemp Starley

John Kemp Starley was an inventor of the safety bicycle and founder of what became known as the Rover car manufacturing company.

John Kincaid, witch-finder

John Kincaid or Kinkaid was a professional witch-finder or pricker of witches based in Tranent, East Lothian.

John Nevison

John Nevison (died 4 May 1684) was one of Britain’s most notorious highwaymen.

John Rylands

John Rylands (7 February 1801 – 11 December 1888) was an English entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the owner of the largest textile manufacturing concern in the United Kingdom, and Manchester’s first multi-millionaire.

John Smith, architect

John Smith (1781 – 22 July 1852) was a Scottish architect who contributed significantly to the architecture of Aberdeen.

John White, 1st Baron Overtoun

John Campbell White, 1st Baron Overtoun JP, DL (21 November 1843 – 15 February 1908), was a Scottish chemical manufacturer, supporter of religious causes, philanthropist and Liberal politician

John William Waterhouse

John William Waterhouse was an English artist known primarily for his depictions of women set in scenes from myth, legend or poetry. He is the best known of that group of artists who from the 1880s revived the literary themes favoured by the Pre-Raphaelites.

Jonathan Tyers

Proprietor of New Spring Gardens, later known as Vauxhall Gardens, a popular pleasure garden in Kennington, London.

Joseph Denison (banker)

A wealthy banker and owner of the Denbies estate in Surrey.

Joseph Neil Paton

Damask designer and antiquarian with an extensive collection containing witchcraft paraphernalia that included the skull of Lilias Adie. Father of the artist Joseph Noel Paton

Joseph Noel Paton

Scottish artist, antiquary, poet and sculptor

Keeping of dogs to hunt, etc. 1390

A statute passed during the reign of King Richard II to restrict the hunting of game to the wealthier members of society by forbidding the ownership of hunting dogs, ferrets etc. to anyone earning less than forty shillings a year.

Kellas cat

A Kellas cat is a black Scottish feline, initially considered to be a myth or a hoax.


Kelpie, or water kelpie, is the Scots name given to a shape-shifting water spirit inhabiting the lochs and pools of Scotland.

Kenyon and Leigh Junction Railway

The Kenyon and Leigh Junction Railway (K&LJR) opened on 3 January 1831 linking the Bolton and Leigh Railway (B&LR), which terminated near the Leigh Branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) at Kenyon.


Kidnapped is a historical fiction adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, written as a boys’ novel and first published in the magazine Young Folks from May to July 1886.

King’s Evil

The King’s Evil was the name given in medieval times to scrofula, a swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck caused by tuberculosis.

Kirklees Priory

A medieval nunnery associated with the legend of the death of Robin Hood.


Kosmoid was a group of three companies set up by Glasgow doctor Alexander Shiels in 1904: Kosmoid Ltd, Kosmoid Locks Ltd, and Kosmoid Tubes Ltd.

L. C. Howitt

Leonard Cecil Howitt (1896–1964) – often referred to as L. C. Howitt – served in both World Wars and was Manchester City Council’s chief architect from 1946 until his retirement in 1961.

Lady Agnew of Lochnaw (painting)

Lady Agnew of Lochnaw is an oil on canvas portrait by the Florence-born artist John Singer Sargent. Commissioned by Sir Andrew Noel Agnew, 9th Baronet of Lochnaw Castle in Wigtownshire, the work was completed in six sittings during 1892.

Lady Emily Gordon Cathcart

Heiress known for her stance against Catholicism and her leading role in the Highland Clearances

Lady Lovibond

The Lady Lovibond, is perhaps the best-known of the ghost ships that reportedly haunt British waters.

Lady Rachel Workman MacRobert

Geologist, cattle breeder, an active feminist and creator of the MacRobert Trust, a charity that supports the RAF and others

Lancashire and Cheshire Coalfield

The Lancashire and Cheshire Coalfield in North West England was one of the most important British coalfields. Its coal seams were formed from the vegetation of tropical swampy forests in the Carboniferous period more than 300 million years ago.

Lancashire and Cheshire Miners Permanent Relief Society

The Lancashire and Cheshire Miners Permanent Relief Society (LCMPRS) was a form of friendly society started in 1872 to provide financial assistance to miners who were unable to work after being injured in industrial accidents in collieries on the Lancashire Coalfield.

Lancashire and Cheshire Miners’ Federation

The Lancashire and Cheshire Miners’ Federation (LCMF) was a trade union founded in the aftermath of a bitter, violent seven-week strike in 1881.

Lancashire Witch locomotive

The Lancashire Witch was built by Robert Stephenson and Company, and was a development of George Stephenson and Timothy Hackworth’s Locomotion No. 1.


A structure close to the refectory of a monastery, providing washing facilities.

Leeds arcades

Leeds has four Victorian shopping arcades built between 1878 and 1904. They are all listed buildings and still in use.

Leeds Cloth Halls

Six cloth halls have been built in Leeds since 1711, and the remains of two survive. Four were for white cloth, one for mixed or coloured cloth and one for cloth made by unapprenticed clothiers.

Leeds Pottery

Pottery established in 1770 in Hunslet, South Leeds notable for intricate pierced creamware known as Leedsware.

Leigh Poor Law Union

Leigh Poor Law Union was established on 26 January 1837 in accordance with the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. The union covered the townships of Astley, Atherton, Bedford, Pennington, Tyldesley with Shakerley and Westleigh all in the ancient parish of Leigh plus Culcheth, Lowton and part of Winwick.

Leigh silk industry

Leigh’s silk industry grew after 1827 in and around the area of the old parish when silk was woven on domestic hand looms and later in weaving sheds using silk yarn supplied from Macclesfield by agents from Manchester.

Leigh Spinners

Leigh Spinners or Leigh Mill is a Grade II* listed double cotton spinning mill near the Bridgewater Canal in Bedford, Leigh, England.

Leigh Town Hall

Leigh Town Hall stands facing the parish church across the Civic Square at its junction with Market Street in Leigh, Greater Manchester, England. It was designed for the Municipal Borough of Leigh by James Caldwell Prestwich, who had an architectural practice in the town.

Leigh-Ellenbrook guided busway

The Leigh-Ellenbrook guided busway is part of the Leigh-Salford-Manchester bus rapid transit scheme in Greater Manchester, England. It provides transport connections between Leigh, Tyldesley and Ellenbrook and onwards to Manchester city centre on local roads.

Leighth Feight

The Leighth Feight was a clash between Chartists and police in Leigh in Lancashire in August 1839.

Liber Poenitentialis

The Lieber potentialis is a set of 7th-century ecclesiastical laws applied to women – and only women – perfoming acts such as divination, raising storms, or murder by the use of magic.

Lilias Adie, witch

Lilias Adie was an elderly Torryburn woman who died after confessing to witchcraft; her face was reconstructed from photos of her skull.

Lion comique

The lion comique was a type of popular entertainer in the Victorian music halls, a parody of upper-class toffs or “swells” made popular by Alfred Vance and G. H. MacDermott, among others.

Little Moreton Hall

Little Moreton Hall is a moated half-timbered manor house 4.5 miles (7.2 km) southwest of Congleton in Cheshire, England.

Locomotive Acts

The Locomotive Acts of 1861, 1865 and 1878 set the United Kingdom’s first speed limits for road-going vehicles; powered passenger vehicles were at the time known as light locomotives, as they were invariably powered by steam.

Longford Cinema

Longford Cinema, opposite Stretford Mall on the eastern side of the A56 Chester Road, is perhaps the most visually striking building in the town.

Ly Erg

The Ly Erg is a fairy from Scottish folklore that dresses as a soldier, challenging passersby to fight. But anyone who takes up the challenge will die, win or lose.

Lytham Pier

Lytham Pier, a pleasure and working pier, was opened in the seaside town of Lytham, Lancashire, England in 1865, in the face of reservations from local residents. The pier underwent several renovations during the 1890s and early 1900s before being badly damaged by a storm in 1903. It was demolished in 1960.

Magee Marshall & Company

Magee Marshall & Company operated from the Crown Brewery in Bolton, Lancashire, England from 1888 until being taken over by Greenall Whitley in 1958.

Making of Bread, etc. Act 1800

The Making of Bread, etc. Act 1800 (41 Geo. III c. 16), also known as the Brown Bread Act or the Poison Act, was a British Act of Parliament that prohibited millers from producing any flour other than wholemeal flour.

Malcolm Saville

Leonard Malcolm Saville (21 February 1901 – 30 June 1982) was an English author best known for the Lone Pine series of children’s books, published between 1943 and 1978.


Maleficium is an act of sorcery, historically usually performed by a witch, intended to cause harm or injury.

Malkin Tower

Malkin Tower was the home of Elizabeth Southerns, also known as Demdike, and her granddaughter Alizon Device, two of the chief protagonists in the Lancashire witch trials of 1612.

Manchester Blitz

The Manchester Blitz (also known as the Christmas Blitz) was the heavy bombing of the city of Manchester and its surrounding areas in North West England during the Second World War by the Nazi German Luftwaffe.

Manchester Carriage Company

The Manchester Carriage Company was established on 1 March 1865 to provide horse-drawn bus services throughout Manchester and Salford, in England.

Manchester City News

The Manchester City News was a weekly local newspaper; the first edition went on sale on 2 January 1864, priced at one penny. The newspaper focused largely on commercial and local issues such as meetings of the town council and proceedings in the law courts, but it also included some more general news and book reviews.

Manchester Coalfield

The Manchester Coalfield is part of the Lancashire Coalfield. Some easily accessible seams were worked on a small scale from the Middle Ages, and extensively from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution until the last quarter of the 20th century.

Manchester Collieries

Manchester Collieries was a coal mining company with headquarters in Walkden, Lancashire that was formed in 1929 by the merger of a group of independent companies operating on the Manchester Coalfield.

Manchester computers

The Manchester computers were an innovative series of stored-program electronic computers developed during the 30-year period between 1947 and 1977 by a small team at the University of Manchester, under the leadership of Tom Kilburn.

Manchester Courier

The Manchester Courier was a daily newspaper founded in Manchester, England, by Thomas Sowler; the first edition was published on 1 January 1825. Alaric Alexander Watts was the paper’s first editor, but remained in that position for only a year …

Manchester Examiner

The Manchester Examiner was a newspaper based in Manchester, England, founded in about 1845. It was intended as a vehicle to promote the idea of Manchester Liberalism, but financial problems, led to its demise in 1894, when it was absorbed by the Empire News …

Manchester Free Library

The Manchester Free Library opened on 5 September 1852 in Manchester, England. It was the first to be set up under the provisions of the Public Libraries Act 1850, which allowed local authorities to impose a local tax of one penny to pay for the service.

Manchester Liners

Manchester Liners was a cargo and passenger shipping company founded in 1898, based in Manchester, England.

Manchester Mark 1

The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) or “Baby” (operational in June 1948). It was also called the Manchester Automatic Digital Machine, or MADM.

Manchester Martyrs

The Manchester Martyrs – William Philip Allen, Michael Larkin, and Michael O’Brien – were three men executed for the murder of a police officer in Manchester, England, in 1867

Manchester Mummy

Hannah Beswick (1688 – February 1758), of Birchin Bower, Hollinwood, Oldham, Lancashire, was a wealthy woman who had a pathological fear of premature burial. Following her death in 1758 her body was embalmed and kept above ground, to be periodically checked for signs of life.

Manchester Royal Exchange

The Manchester Royal Exchange, on the land bounded by St Ann’s Square, Exchange Street, Market Street, Cross Street and Old Bank Street comprises the Royal Exchange Theatre and the Royal Exchange Shopping Centre.

Manchester Ship Canal

The Manchester Ship Canal is a 36-mile-long (58 km) inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea.

Manchester Society for Women’s Suffrage

The Manchester Society for Women’s Suffrage, whose aim was to obtain the same rights for women to vote for Members of Parliament as those granted to men, was formed at a meeting in Manchester in January 1867.

Manchester Suburban Tramways Company

The Manchester Suburban Tramways Company (MSTC) was incorporated in 1877 as the Manchester & Salford Tramway Company, to provide horse-drawn tram services throughout Manchester and Salford, in England.

Manchester Terrier

The Manchester Terrier is a breed of dog of the smooth-haired terrier type.

Manchester Times

The Manchester Times was a weekly newspaper published in Manchester, England, from 1828 to 1922, known for its free-trade radicalism.

Manchester Zoological Gardens

The Manchester Zoological Gardens opened in 1838, on a 15-acre (6 ha) site between Broom Lane and Northumberland Street in Broughton, now in Salford, England.


The mandrake (Mandragora officinalis) is one of 2500 species of plants belonging to the Solanaceae family. Its psychoactive effects have been known to physicians since ancient times.

Manorial court

The manorial courts were the lowest courts of law in England during the feudal period. They had a civil jurisdiction limited both in subject matter and geography.

Margaret Aitken, the great witch of Balwearie

Margaret Aitken or Atkin (died Fife c. August 1597), known as the great witch of Balwearie, was a pivotal figure in the great Scottish witchcraft panic of 1597.

Margaret Sibthorp

Margaret Sibthorp, née Shurmer, (c. 1835 – 23 May 1916) edited the “pioneering women’s periodical” Shafts from 1892 until 1899.

Margaretha Horn, witch

Woman arrested on suspicion of witchcraft in Rothenburg in 1652, who despite being tortured, vigorously protested her innocence


Oil painting by John William Waterhouse

Marshall Stevens

Marshall Stevens, born in 1852, was an English property developer whose work with Daniel Adamson and others led to the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, completed in 1894.

Mary Pownall Bromet

Mary Pownall Bromet (1862 – 25 February 1937) was a sculptor. She was born in Leigh, Lancashire in 1862 where her father, James Pownall, was a silk manufacturer.

Mary Taylor

Mary Taylor (1817–1893), an early advocate for women’s rights, was born in Gomersal in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.

Mary Toft

An English woman from Godalming, Surrey, who in 1726 became the subject of considerable controversy when she tricked doctors into believing that she had given birth to rabbits.

Masbro’ boat disaster

Sixty-four people, mainly children, were drowned in the River Don in Masbrough, Yorkshire, on 5 July 1841 when the launch of a boat went wrong.

Mathematical Bridge

Mathematical fallacy

A series of steps which is seemingly correct but contains a flawed argument, or a spurious proof of an obvious contradiction such as that 1 = 2. Fallacies differ from simple mistakes in that there is an element of concealment in the presentation of the proof.

Mather Lane Mill

Mather Lane Mills was a complex of cotton mills built by the Bridgewater Canal in Bedford, Leigh in Lancashire, England.

Matthew Hopkins

Matthew Hopkins (c. 1620 – 12 August 1647) was an English witch-hunter who claimed to hold the office of Witchfinder General, although that title was never bestowed by Parliament.

Matthew Murray

Matthew Murray was an engineer born in Newcastle on Tyne who became known for improving steam engines and building the first commercially successful steam locomotive.

Maud Foster Windmill

The Maud Foster Windmill is a seven-storey, five-sail tower mill close to the Maud Foster Drain, from which she is named, in Skirbeck, Boston, Lincolnshire.

Maurice Winnick

Maurice Winnick (28 March 1902 – 26 May 1962) was an English musician and dance band leader of the British dance band era.

Mellor hill fort

Mellor hill fort is a prehistoric site dating from the British Iron Age, situated on a hill in the village of Mellor, Greater Manchester, on the western edge of the Peak District.

Metropolitan Houseless Poor Act 1864

The Metropolitan Houseless Poor Act 1864 (27 & 28 Vict c. 116) was a short-term piece of legislation that imposed a legal obligation on Poor Law unions in London to provide temporary accommodation for “destitute wayfarers, wanderers, and foundlings”

Midas Bronze

The Midas Bronze is a Mini-based kit car designed by Richard Oakes and manufactured by D&H Fibreglass Techniques, set up by Harold Dermott and Maurice Holt in 1975.

Mines and Collieries Act 1842

The Mines and Collieries Act 1842 (5 & 6 Vict. c. 99), usually known as the Mines Act 1842 is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prohibited all females and boys under ten years of age from working underground in coal mines.

Mines rescue

Mines rescue is the specialised job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines because of accidents, roof falls or floods and disasters such as explosions caused by firedamp.

Mining disasters in Lancashire

Mining disasters in Lancashire in which five or more people were killed occurred most frequently in the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s.

Model village

A model village is a type of mostly self-contained community, built from the late 18th century onwards by landowners and industrialists to house their workers.

Monastic grange

Monastic granges were outlying landholdings held by monasteries independent of the manorial system. They could be of six known types: agrarian, bercaries (sheep farms), vaccaries (cattle farms), horse studs, fisheries or industrial complexes.

Montague Napier

Montague Stanley Napier (14 April 1870 – 22 January 1931) was an English automobile and aircraft engine manufacturer.

Montezuma’s Daughter

Montezuma’s Daughter first published in 1893, is a novel by H. Rider Haggard, the last of his best work.

Moors murders

The Moors murders were carried out by Ian Brady and Myra Hindley between July 1963 and October 1965, in and around what is now Greater Manchester, England. The victims were five children aged between 10 and 17 – Pauline Reade, John Kilbride, Keith Bennett, Lesley Ann Downey and Edward Evans – at least four of whom were sexually assaulted.

Morleys Hall

Morleys Hall, a moated hall converted into two houses on the edge of Astley Moss in Astley, Greater Manchester, England, was largely rebuilt in the 19th century on the site of a medieval timber house.

Mr. Brisher’s Treasure

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1899, a morality tale of greed and hypocrisy.

Mr. Ledbetter’s Vacation

“Mr. Ledbetter’s Vacation” is a short story by H. G. Wells about a schoolmaster who, to prove his courage to himself, burgles a house while on holiday, leading him into a strange adventure.

Mr. Skelmersdale in Fairyland

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1901, about a young man who falls asleep one midsummer’s night and wakes to find himself in Fairyland.

Mrs Richard Brinsley Sheridan (painting)

Mrs Richard Brinsley Sheridan is an oil on canvas portrait by the English artist Thomas Gainsborough, a close friend of the Linleys. It depicts Elizabeth Ann after her marriage to Sheridan.

Municipal Borough of Leigh

The Municipal Borough of Leigh, a local government district in Lancashire, England, was created in 1899 and abolished in 1974.

Municipal Borough of Stretford

The Municipal Borough of Stretford was created in 1933 and abolished in 1974. The area it controlled is now part of the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester.


The myrmecoleon, or ant-lion, is usually considered to be a mythical creature of legend, although it has also been identified as a rock hyrax.

Myths & magic

Nantwich Workhouse

A Grade II listed building and former workhouse in Nantwich, Cheshire, England, built in 1779–1780 to accommodate up to 350 paupers.

National Coal Board

The National Coal Board (NCB) was the statutory corporation created to run the coal mining industry in the United Kingdom under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946.


Necromancy is a form of magic in which the dead are re-animated and able to communicate with the sorcerer who invoked them, just as they would if they were alive.

Ned Painter

Edward Painter (1784 – 18 September 1852), better known as Ned Painter, was an English bare-knuckle prize fighter. After his retirement from boxing he became the landlord of The Anchor in Norwich.

New Bolsover

New Bolsover is a model village adjoining the town of Bolsover in Derbyshire, built by the local colliery company to house its workers.

New Hall moat

New Hall moat is a scheduled monument in Tyldesley, Greater Manchester, England. The monument includes a moat and an island platform on which a modern house has been built.

New Lester Colliery

New Lester Colliery on the Manchester Coalfield was opened after 1872 by James and William Roscoe in Tyldesley, Lancashire, England.

Newes from Scotland

Pamphlet describing the North Berwick witch trials in Scotland detailing the confessions given by the accused witches before the King.

Newgate novel

The Newgate novels are an early form of sensation literature, drawing their inspiration from the Newgate Calendar, first published in 1773 and containing biographies of famous criminals.

Nico Ditch

Nico Ditch is a linear earthwork between Ashton-under-Lyne and Stretford in Greater Manchester, England.

Nook Colliery

Nook Colliery or Nook Pit was a coal mine on the Manchester Coalfield after 1866 in Tyldesley, Lancashire, England.

Noon Hill

Noon Hill is an area of the West Pennine Moors in North West England. At its summit is a Bronze Age burial mound.

Norah Wilmot

Norah Wilmot (1889–1980) was the first British woman racehorse trainer to officially train a winning horse. Her historic win came with her filly Pat, at Brighton in August 1966, just one day after she became one of the first two women to be granted a training licence by the Jockey Club.

North Western Gas Board

The North Western Gas Board (NWGB) was a state-owned utility area gas board providing gas for light and heat to industries and homes in the north-west of England.

Nostell Colliery

Nostell Colliery on the South Yorkshire Coalfield, about four and a half miles south east of Wakefield was on the Nostell Priory estate.

Nostell Priory

Palladian-style country house built near the site of a 12th-century Augustinian priory


The nuckelavee, or nuckalavee, is a horse-like demon from Orcadian mythology that shares some of the characteristics of humans.


Mythical water horse of mainly Shetland folklore where it was also referred to as a shoepultie or shoopiltee in some areas of the islands

Number of the beast

The hideous beast whose number is 666 is introduced in the Book of Revelation, which many have seen as a description of the end of the world.


Numerology is the modern successor to arithmomancy. It embodies the belief that numbers can explain the workings of the universe and thus allow predictions to be made. In this form of mysticism, numbers are substituted for letters of of the alphabet, each having an assigned significance.

Ogle SX1000

The Ogle SX1000 is a front-wheel drive Mini-based coupé-style motor vehicle designed by David Ogle, the founder of Ogle Design.


Series of three paintings by John William Waterhouse, reflecting his interpretation of Ophelia, a character from Shakespeare’s Hamlet

Ordsall Hall

Ordsall Hall is a large former manor house in the historic parish of Ordsall, Lancashire, England, now part of the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester.


Organotherapy is a technique that makes use of extracts derived from animal or human tissues to treat medical conditions.

Osculum infame

Osculum infame, also known as the Kiss of Shame, the Obscene Kiss, is the name commonly given to the ritual of a witch paying homage to the Devil by kissing his genitals, anus or feet.

Overtoun Bridge

Overtoun Bridge, over the Overtoun Burn on the western approach road to Overtoun House, near Dumbarton in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland has attracted international media attention because of the number of dogs that have reportedly leapt from it, often to their deaths after landing on the rocks below.


n oxgang is an old measurement of land area, one eighth of a ploughland, which was the area that could be ploughed by a team of eight oxen in one year. Also known by its latinised name of bovata, an oxgang was the amount of land held by a man who could contribute one ox

Padiham witch

Margaret Pearson was a convicted witch who escaped the death penalty because she had caused no harm to anyone.

Pail closet

A pail closet was a small outhouse containing a seat underneath which was a bucket into which the user would defecate. The buckets were regularly removed and emptied by the local authority.

Paisley witches

The Paisley witches, also known as the Bargarran witches or the Renfrewshire witches, were tried in Paisley, Renfrewshire, central Scotland, in 1697.

Pall Mall Budget

The Pall Mall Budget was a weekly magazine published in London from 1868 until 1920.

Peel Trident

The Peel Trident, designed by Cyril Cannell, was first produced by the Peel Engineering Co from 1965–1966, and reintroduced by Peel Engineering Ltd in 2011.

Peelwood Colliery

Peelwood Colliery on the Manchester Coalfield in Shakerley, Tyldesley, Lancashire, began producing coal in 1883.

Peg o’ Nell

Peg o’ Nell is the malevolent water spirit of the River Ribble in Lancashire.

Peg Powler

Peg Powler is the evil spirit of the River Tees in northeastern England, said to drag children who ventured too close the water’s edge to their deaths.

Pendine Museum of Speed

The Pendine Museum of Speed was dedicated to the use of Pendine Sands for land speed record attempts. It opened in 1996 in the village of Pendine, on the south coast of Wales, and was owned and run by Carmarthenshire County Council.

Pendle witches

The trials of the Pendle witches in 1612 are among the most famous witch trials in English history, and some of the best recorded of the 17th century.

Pendleton Colliery

Pendleton Colliery operated on the Manchester Coalfield from the late 1820s. It was a major employer but was subject to water ingress, which ultimately bankrupted its owner.

Pendleton fault

The Pendleton Fault, sometimes called the Irwell Valley Fault, stretches for about 20 miles (32 km) from Bolton in Greater Manchester in the north along the Irwell Valley through Pendleton and south to Poynton in Cheshire.

Penelope and the Suitors

An oil on canvas painting by the English artist John William Waterhouse, commissioned by the Aberdeen Art Gallery and completed in 1912.

Pennington Flash

A lake formed by mining subsidence in Leigh, Greater Manchester, the largest body of open water in Wigan.

Penny dreadful

Penny dreadfuls, or penny bloods, were cheap popular serial literature produced during the 19th century, typically a story published in weekly parts, each costing a penny.

Percy Houfton

Percy Bond Houfton (1873–1926) was a late 19th and early 20th-century English architect.

Perfect number

A perfect number is a positive integer the sum of whose proper divisors is equal to the number itself.

Peter Beatty

English racehorse owner, businessman and aristocrat

Peterloo Massacre

The Peterloo Massacre (or Battle of Peterloo) occurred at St Peter’s Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 that had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.


A phantasmagoria is a ghost show developed by the impresario Paul de Philipsthal, also known as Philidor.

Piano nobile

A piano nobile, from the Italian meaning noble or grand floor, is the main floor of a Palladian or Georgian building.

Piece Hall

A rare example of a large-scale cloth hall – an exchange for trading woollen and worsted cloth “pieces” – that is largely intact.

Pit Brow Women

Pit brow women were female surface labourers at British collieries. They worked at the coal screens on the pit brow (pit bank) at the shaft top until the 1960s. Their job was to pick stones and sort the coal after it was hauled to the surface.

Pitfour estate

The Pitfour estate, in the Buchan area of north-east Scotland, was purchased in 1700 by James Ferguson of Badifurrow, who became the first Laird of Pitfour.
The estate was substantially renovated by him and the following two generations of his family. At the height of its development in the 18th and 19th centuries the property had several extravagant features including a two-mile racecourse, an artificial lake and an observatory.

Pittenweem witches

Five Scottish women accused of witchcraft in the small fishing village of Pittenweem in Fife on the east coast of Scotland in 1704

Plague stones

Hollowed out stones or boulders, relics of a time when plagues spread through the country in medieval times. They hollows were filled with vinegar and placed at or near parish boundaries in attempt to prevent the spread of the disease by disinfecting coins.

Port of Manchester

The Port of Manchester in North West England was created as a customs port on 1 January 1894 and closed in 1982.


A porte-cochère, from the French meaning “coach door”, also known as a coach gate or carriage porch, is a covered porch-like structure at a main or secondary entrance to a building that gives access to a vehicle while providing arriving and departing occupants with protection from the elements.

Potovens pottery

Small pot works were built in Potovens, a hamlet on the Wakefield Outwood now known as Wrenthorpe .

Potts of Leeds

Potts of Leeds was founded in 1833. The company made domestic timepieces and expanded into the manufacture and repair of public clocks, based in Leeds, Yorkshire, England.

Power-loom riots

The power-loom riots of 1826 took place in Lancashire, England, in protest against the economic hardship suffered by traditional hand loom weavers caused by the widespread introduction of the much more efficient power loom.

Predictions of Isaac Bickerstaff

Isaac Bickerstaff was a pseudonym used by the satirist Jonathan Swift in a hoax predicting the “infallible” death of John Partridge, a well-known 18th-century astrologer and almanac maker, on 29 March 1708.

Prime number

A prime number is any positive integer greater than zero that has only two proper divisors, 1 and the number itself. Thus the lowest prime number is 2, which is also the only even prime.

Privacy policy

Privacy policy,
last updated on 13 June 2020

Proper divisor

A proper divisor is a number n that when divided into another number N leaves no remainder.

Pull quotes & quotations

A guide to pull quotes and the {{quote}} plugin

Punishment of Incest Act 1908

The Punishment of Incest Act 1908 (8 Edw. 7 c. 45) made it illegal for the first time in England and Wales for a man to engage in sexual intercourse with any female he knew to be his grand-daughter, daughter, sister, half-sister, or mother.

Quatermass and the Pit

Quatermass and the pit is a British television science-fiction serial from the BBC, broadcast in 1958/1959.

Rag pudding

Rag pudding is a savoury dish once popular in the mill towns of northwest England.

Rag, Tag and Bobtail

Rag, Tag and Bobtail was a BBC children’s television programme that ran from 1953 until 1965 as the Thursday programme in the weekly cycle of Watch With Mother.

Ralph of Coggeshall

Ralph of Coggeshall, Abbot of Coggeshall Abbey, was a major contributor to the early history of England known as the Chronicon Anglicanum, in which he included several anecdotes that have become folk tales.

Ramsden’s Shakerley Collieries

Ramsden’s Shakerley Collieries was a coal mining company operating from the mid-19th century in Shakerley, Tyldesley in Lancashire, England.


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Red House

Red House was built in 1660 by William Taylor, whose descendants owned it until 1920. The Taylor family were farmers and clothiers, who developed their business into cloth finishing and became merchants.

Renishaw Hall

A country house to the west of Renishaw village in Derbyshire England, home to the Sitwell since the early 17th century.


Those who exhumed the bodies of the recently deceased during the 18th and 19th centuries to provide cadavers to anatomists for their research.


A revenant is the spirit of a dead person returned to visit the living, the common conception of a ghost.

RHS Garden Bridgewater

The Royal Horticultural Society’s first new garden since 2003, opening in 2020 in Worsley, in the City of Salford.

Rhubarb Triangle

The Rhubarb Triangle covers 9 square miles (23 km2) of West Yorkshire, England between Wakefield, Morley and Rothwell, and is famous for producing early forced rhubarb.

Richard Graham

Richard Graham, sometimes Ritchie Graham or Rychie Grahame, was a sorcerer, necromancer and wizard. Executed on the last day of February 1592 as part of the North Berwick witch trials, he was an associate of Francis Stewart, fifth Earl of Bothwell.

Rivington Gardens

Rivington Gardens cover about 45 acres of the steep west-facing slopes of Rivington Moor at the edge of the West Pennine Moors in Lancashire.

Rivington Hall

A Grade II* listed former manor house in Rivington, Lancashire, England, the successor to a 15th-century building that was built near to the present building.

Rivington Pike

A hill summit on Winter Hill, part of the West Pennine Moors, overlooking the village of Rivington in Lancashire, England.

Rivington Reservoirs

The Rivington Reservoir Chain, or Rivington Pike Scheme, was built for Liverpool Corporation Waterworks between 1850 and 1857 by Thomas Hawksley.

Robert Daglish

Robert Daglish (1779–1865) was a colliery manager, mining, mechanical and civil engineer at the start of the railway era.

Robert Grierson, witchcraft

Named by several accused of witchcraft during the North Berwick witch trials, Grierson died whilst being tortured during his interrogation.

Robert Isherwood

Robert Isherwood (1845–1905) was a miner’s agent, local councillor and the first treasurer of the Lancashire and Cheshire Miners’ Federation.

Robert Southey

Robert Southey (12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the Lake Poets along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and England’s poet laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843

Robert Tatton

Robert Tatton (1606 – 19 August 1669) was the High Sheriff of Chester between 1645 and 1646 and a supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War. He is perhaps best remembered today for the ultimately unsuccessful defence of his family home, Wythenshawe Hall, during its three-month siege by a Parliamentary force in the winter of 1643/44.

Roger Hampson

Roger Hampson (1925–1996), painter, printmaker and teacher, was a member of the group of post-war northern artists who developed the realist tradition established by L S Lowry and Harry Rutherford.

Roman numerals

The system of Roman numerals uses letters to represent numbers, an idea that was developed by the Phoenicians two thousand years before the founding of the city of Rome in the mid-8th century BCE.

Round Foundry

The Round Foundry was an engineering works off Water Lane in Holbeck, Leeds in Yorkshire. The complex was built for Fenton, Murray and Wood.

Roy of the Rovers

Roy of the Rovers is a British comic strip about the life and times of a fictional footballer named Roy Race, who played for Melchester Rovers.

Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Manchester

The Royal Jubilee Exhibition of 1887 was held in Old Trafford, Manchester, England, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria’s accession.


Rumpelstiltskin is a fairy tale popularly associated with Germany, one of those collected by the Brothers Grimm in the 1812 edition of Children’s and Household Tales. It tells of an imp able to spin straw into gold, and the price he demands for his service.

RW Kit Cars

RW Kit Cars Ltd. was an English manufacturer of kit cars, founded in 1983 by Roger Woolley.

Sabrina (actress)

Norma Ann Sykes, better known as Sabrina, was a 1950s English glamour who went on to have a minor film career; she is best known for her hourglass figure.

Salade niçoise

Salade niçoise originated in the French city of Nice. It is traditionally made of tomatoes, hard-boiled eggs, Niçoise olives and anchovies, dressed with olive oil.


Salamanca, designed and built by Matthew Murray in 1812, was the world’s first commercially successful steam locomotive.

Sally Salisbury

Sally Salisbury (c.1692 – 1724) was a prostitute in early 18th-century London, celebrated for her beauty and wit. She achieved notoriety after stabbing one of her aristocratic clients,

Sam Hurst

Sam Hurst (13 March 1832 – 22 May 1882), nicknamed the Stalybridge Infant in ironic reference to his considerable physical size, was the English bare-knuckle boxing champion 1860–61. He was born in Marsden, in Yorkshire, England, but in 1857 moved to Stalybridge, where he took a job in the local iron foundry and worked as a bouncer at the White House public house.

Samlesbury witches

The Samlesbury witches were three women from the Lancashire village of Samlesbury – Jane Southworth, Jennet Bierley, and Ellen Bierley – accused by a 14-year-old girl, Grace Sowerbutts, of practising witchcraft. Their trial at Lancaster Assizes in England on 19 August 1612 was one in a series of witch trials held there over two days. All three women were acquitted.

Samuel Bamford

Samuel Bamford (28 February 1788 – 13 April 1872) was an English radical and writer, born in Middleton, Lancashire.

Samuel Hibbert-Ware

Samuel Hibbert-Ware FRSE FSA (21 April 1782 – 30 December 1848), born Samuel Hibbert in St Ann’s Square Manchester, was an English geologist and antiquarian.

Samuel Linley

Samuel Linley (1760–1778) was an oboist, singer and junior naval officer. A member of the musically talented Linley family fathered by Thomas Linley, he first performed on stage in 1766.

Sandal Castle

A ruined medieval castle in Sandal Magna, Wakefield in West Yorkshire, England. One of two castles built overlooking the River Calder, it was built by the Warrennes, the Earls of Surrey who were Lords of the Manor of Wakefield.

Sawney Bean

Sawney Bean is a legendary 16th-century Scottish cannibal.

Scammonden Reservoir

Scammonden Reservoir in the South Pennines supplies water to Huddersfield in West Yorkshire.

Science & medicine


The Scoot-Mobile is a three-wheeled motor vehicle the prototype for which was produced in 1947. The body was a modified aircraft fuel tank, and the wheels also came from an aircraft.

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition

The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902–1904, led by William Spiers Bruce, established the first manned meteorological station in the Antarctic. It also discovered 212 species of animal life previously unknown to science, and led to the establishment of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in 1906.

Scottish poorhouse

The Scottish poorhouse, occasionally referred to as a workhouse, provided accommodation for the destitute and poor in Scotland.

Scottish tower house

Characteristic style of Scottish castle building in the form of a tall tower, surrounded by one or more wings in L or Z-shaped floor plans in its later development.


Scrying is a form of divination in which the diviner gazes into a reflective surface, in which visions appear.


Scuttlers were members of neighbourhood-based youth gangs formed in working-class areas of Manchester, Salford, and the surrounding townships during the late 19th century.

Sea Mither

Sea Mither is a mythical being of Orcadian folklore that lives in the sea during summer, when she confines the demonic nuckelavee to the ocean depths. Each spring she battles with her arch-enemy Teran, another spirit of Orcadian legend capable of causing severe winter storms, to gain control of the seas and the weather.

Seely wights

The seely wights were fairy-like creatures at the centre of a shamanistic Scottish cult that existed in the 16th century. Members were able to enter into a trance which allowed them to fly out at night on swallows and join with the seely wights.

Sharston Hall

Sharston Hall was a manor house built in Sharston, an area of Wythenshawe, Manchester, England, in 1701.

Shuttle Eye Colliery

A colliery on the South Yorkshire Coalfield at Grange Moor in West Yorkshire, between Wakefield and Huddersfield on the A642 road.

Sicilian Baroque

Sicilian Baroque is the distinctive form of Baroque architecture which evolved on the island of Sicily, off the southern coast of Italy, in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was part of the Spanish Empire. The style is recognisable by its typical Baroque curves and flourishes, its grinning masks and putti, and a particular flamboyance that has given Sicily a unique architectural identity.

Sir Alexander MacRobert

Self-made millionaire from Aberdeen

Sir Andrew Agnew, 9th Baronet of Lochnaw

Sir Andrew Noel Agnew, 9th Baronet of Lochnaw (14 August 1850 – 14 July 1928) was a descendent of an old Scottish family whose main seat was Lochnaw Castle in Wigtownshire, Scotland.

Sir John Brunner, 1st Baronet

A British industrialist, philanthropist and Liberal Party politician who, with Ludwig Mond, created the chemical company Brunner Mond.

Skelmanthorpe flag

The Skelmanthorpe flag in Skelmanthorpe near Huddersfield in Yorkshire in 1819, to honour the victims of the Peterloo Massacre.

Slack Roman Fort

Slack Roman Fort, a castellum (fort) in the Roman province of Britannia may have been the Cambodunum mentioned as a station on this route in the Antonine Itinerary.

Sleep and his Half-Brother Death

Painting by John William Waterhouse

Small-Scale Experimental machine

The Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), nicknamed Baby, was the world’s first stored-program computer.

Smithills Hall

Smithills Hall in Bolton, Greater Manchester, is one of the oldest manor houses in the northwest of England, dating in parts from the 15th century.


Society for Psychical Research

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a registered charity founded in 1882 to conduct scientific investigations into psychic and paranormal phenomena.


An imaginary kind of afterbirth in the form of an “evil-looking little animal” especially attributed to Dutch women.

South Lancashire Tramways

The South Lancashire Tramways system of electric trams was authorised by the South Lancashire Tramways Act of 1900. The South Lancashire Tramways Company built more than 62 miles (100 km) of track to serve the towns in south Lancashire between St Helens, Swinton, Westhoughton and Hulton Lane where it met the Bolton Corporation system.

South Wheal Frances

A copper and tin mine to the south of Camborne in Cornwall named after the mineral lord, Lady Frances Basset

Southport Pier

Southport Pier is a pleasure pier in Southport, Merseyside, England. Opened in August 1860, it is the oldest iron pier in the country.


A spandrel is the roughly triangular space above and on either side of an arch.

Spell (magical)

A spell is a verbal charm to be spoken or chanted, sometimes a single magic word such as Abracadabra or the Renervate encountered in the fictional Harry Potter series of books.

Spirit photography

Spirit photography was a technique popular in the 19th century to capture the invisible spirits of the deceased.

Sponging house

A sponging house was a place of temporary confinement for those arrested for non-payment of a debt.

St George’s Colliery

St George’s Colliery, known locally as Back o’t’ Church, was a coal mine on the Manchester Coalfield that was sunk in 1866 in Tyldesley, Lancashire, England.

Starfish site

tarfish sites were large-scale night-time decoys created during the Blitz of the Second World War to simulate burning British cities. They were designed to divert German night bombers from their intended targets so they would drop their ordnance over the countryside. The sites were an extension of the engineer Colonel John Turner’s decoy programme for

Statute of Silence 1581

The Act against Seditious Words and Rumours (23 Eliz. Cap. II), also known as the Statute of Silence, was passed by the parliament of Queen Elizabeth I in January 1581, introducing a series of increasingly gruesome punishments for speaking or publishing anything that the Queen did not wish to hear.

Stimson Mini Bug

The Stimson Mini Bug is a Mini-based beach buggy-styled motor vehicle designed by Barry Stimson.

Stimson Safari Six

The Stimson Safari Six is a Mini-based six-wheeled pickup motor vehicle designed by Barry Stimson.

Stimson Scorcher

The Stimson Scorcher is a three-wheeled vehicle designed by Barry Stimson and first produced in the UK in 1976.

Stimson Sting

The Stimson Sting is a three-wheeled motor vehicle designed by Barry Stimson. Available as a kit car, it was introduced into the UK in 2002 and continued in production until 2007.

Stimson Storm

The Stimson Storm is a three-wheeled motor vehicle designed by Barry Stimson and offered for sale as a kit car.

Stone tape theory

The stone tape theory is the idea that recurrent hauntings are produced by the replaying of recordings stored in the physical environment, analogously to tape recordings.

Stoor worm

Gigantic evil sea serpent of Orcadian folklore

Stretford process

The Stretford process was developed during the late 1950s to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from town gas. It was the first liquid phase oxidation process for converting H2S into sulfur to gain widespread commercial acceptance.

Stretford Public Hall

Stretford Public Hall was built in 1878 by John Rylands.

Summis desiderantes affectibus

Summis desiderantes affectibus, (Latin for “Desiring with supreme ardor”), sometimes abbreviated to Summis desiderantes was a papal bull regarding witchcraft issued by Pope Innocent VIII on 5 December 1484.

Sunbeam Tiger

The Sunbeam Tiger is a high-performance V8 version of the British Rootes Group’s Sunbeam Alpine roadster, designed in part by the American car designer and racing driver Carroll Shelby and produced from 1964 until 1967.

Sunny Stories

Sunny Stories was a British children’s magazine published by George Newnes and intended to appeal to both boys and girls. It began as Sunny Stories for Little Folk in 1926, edited and written by Enid Blyton, although she was only credited as the editor.


Supermarionation is a style of puppetry created in the 1960s and used extensively in the action-adventure puppet series of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson.

Sweeney Todd

Sweeney Todd, the demon barber, is a fictional character who first appeared as the villain of the Victorian penny dreadful serial The String of Pearls (1846–1847).

Sweet Fanny Adams

“Sweet Fanny Adams” is an English phrase that means “nothing at all”, but Fanny was a real person, brutally murdered in 1867.

Sympathetic magic

The Law of sympathy, the basis of all magic according to the anthropologist and folklorist Sir James George Frazer, is founded on the idea that things act on each other because they are linked by invisible and secret bonds.


A tackler was a supervisor in a textile factory responsible for the working of a number of power looms and the weavers who operated them.


Taghairm is a Scottish Celtic practice similar to necromancy, in which spirits or demons are conjured up to help achieve some end, or to foretell the future.

Tammy Hall

Wakefield’s Tammy Hall was a piece or cloth hall, a specialist market for selling worsted cloth. Paid for by subscription, the hall opened in 1778.

Tankersley ironstone bed

The Tankersley ironstone bed was named from its outcrop at Tankersley near Barnsley in South Yorkshire.


Tapputi-Belatekallim (fl. 1200 BCE) was a Babylonian chemist and a royal perfume maker.

The Alchymist

The Alchymist is an oil painting by Joseph Wright of Derby, first exhibited in 1771.

The Apparition of Mrs. Veal

The Apparition of Mrs Veal is an account of a ghostly visitation said to have occurred in Canterbury in 1705.

The Argonauts of the Air

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1895, about the disastrous first flight of a heavier-than-air flying machine.

The Beautiful Suit

“The Beautiful Suit” is a short story by H. G. Wells, first published in Collier’s Weekly in April 1909 under the title “A Moonlight Fable”. The exquisitely tailored suit of the title, made for the little man by his mother, ultimately leads to his death.

The Black Cat

“The Black Cat” is a short story by American writer Edgar Allan Poe, first published in the 19 August 1843 edition of The Saturday Evening Post. It is a study of the psychology of guilt.

The Bottle Conjuror

The Bottle Conjurer was advertised to appear at the Haymarket Theatre in England, on 16 January 1749, when he was to have placed his body inside an empty wine bottle, in full view of the audience.

The Cone

“The Cone” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1895. It concerns one man’s revenge on an artists he suspects of having an affair with his wife.

The Coral Island

The Coral Island: A Tale of the Pacific Ocean (1858) is a novel written by Scottish author R. M. Ballantyne. one of the first works of juvenile fiction to feature exclusively juvenile heroes.

The Country of the Blind

“The Country of the Blind” is a short story by H. G. Wells, first published in the April 1904 issue of The Strand Magazine and subsequently in book form in The Country of the Blind and Other Stories (1911).

The Crystal Ball

The Crystal Ball (1902) is an oil painting by John William Waterhouse.

The Crystal Egg

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1897, about a dealer in antiquities who discovers a communication device between Earth and Mars.

The Daily Courant

The Daily Courant, first published on 11 March 1702, was the first British daily newspaper.

The Danaides

Oil on canvas painting by John William Waterhouse exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1906.

The Day Dream

Oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti

The Diamond Maker

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894, about a tramp who claims to be able to make diamonds.

The Door in the Wall

“The Door in the Wall” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1906, about a man’s grieving for a magical garden he had found as a child, and desperately wants to find again.

The examination and confession of certaine Wytches at Chensforde

First pamphlet describing witchcraft trials in England; it covers the testimony of witches at Chelmsford Assizes in 1566.

The Faraway Tree

The Faraway Tree is a series of four novels for children written by Enid Blyton. The stories are set in an enchanted wood in which a gigantic magical tree grows – the titular Faraway Tree.

The Flowering of the Strange Orchid

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894. A collector of orchids grows an unknown species which develops aerial rootlets that attach themselves to his skin and suck his blood.

The Ghost of a Flea

The Ghost of a Flea is one of William Blake’s strangest and most bizarre works.

The Green Child

The Green Child is the only completed novel by the English anarchist poet and critic Herbert Read. Written in 1934 and first published by Heinemann in 1935, the story is based on the 12th-century legend of two green children who mysteriously appeared in the English village of Woolpit.

The Hooper

A mysterious cloud of mist that often hovered over the Cowloe Rock, near Sennen Cove in Cornwall, warning of approaching bad weather.

The Inchcape Rock

“The Inchcape Rock” is a ballad written by English poet Robert Southey. Published in 1802, it tells the story of a 14th-century attempt by the Abbot of Arbroath (“Aberbrothock”) to install a warning bell on Inchcape, a notorious sandstone reef about 11 miles (18 km) off the east coast of Scotland.

The Lady of Shalott

Oil painting by English artist John William Waterhouse; the first in his trilogy featuring The Lady of Shalott

The Laird o’ Cockpen

“The Laird o’ Cockpen” is a song by Scottish songwriter Carolina Nairne, Baroness Nairne (1766–1845), which she contributed anonymously to The Scottish Minstrel, a six-volume collection of traditional Scottish songs published from 1821 to 1824.

The Lancashire Witches

The Lancashire Witches is a novel by William Harrison Ainsworth, first published in 1848. Based on the true story of the Pendle witches, it is the only one of his forty novels that has never been out of print.

The Lord of the Dynamos

The “Lord of the Dynamos ” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894. It concerns a stoker employed at the Camberwell electric railway workshops who becomes convinced that a large dynamo is a deity, and kills his superior in a religious frenzy.

The Magic Circle

The Magic Circle (1886) is an oil painting by John William Waterhouse, one of his earliest depictions of a classical sorceress.

The Magic Shop

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1903, about a young boy and his father’s visit to a shop selling disturbingly realistic magical illusions.

The Man in the Moone

The Man in the Moone is a book by the English divine and Church of England bishop Francis Godwin (1562–1633), describing a “voyage of utopian discovery”.

The Man Who Could Work Miracles

A short story by H. G. Wells about a man who is granted the power to do anything merely by willing it to happen.

The Moth

“The Moth” is a short story by H. G. Well, first published in 1895. It concerns a bitter rivalry between two entomologists, ending with the death of one and the insanity of the other.

The New Accelerator

A short story by H. G. Wells published in 1901, concerning the effects of a fictional drug designed to speed up the human nervous system.

The Nightmare

The Nightmare is an oil painting by Henry Fuseli, depicting an ape-like incubus crouching on a sleeping woman. It was first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1782.

The Pall Mall Gazette

The Pall Mall Gazette was an evening newspaper launched in London on 7 February 1865. It introduced investigative journalism into British journalism, along with other innovations.

The Pearl of Love

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1925, about an Indian prince who, in constructing an elaborate memorial to his deceased wife, loses sight of the building’s original purpose.

The Plattner Story

A short story by H. G. Wells published in 1896, about a chemistry teacher who causes an explosion that propels him into another world.

The Princess and the Pea

“The Princess and the Pea” is a fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about a young woman whose royal identity is established by a test of her physical sensitivity.

The Purple Pileus

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1896, about a struggling small shopkeeper whose life is transformed after consuming some magic mushrooms.

The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania

The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania is an oil on canvas painting by the Scottish artist Sir Joseph Noel Paton.

The Queer Story of Brownlow’s Newspaper

“The Queer Story of Brownlow’s Newspaper” is a short story by H. G. Wells, in which the protagonist receives a newspaper printed forty years in the future.

The Red Room

“The Red Room” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1896, a horror story in the manner of Edgar Allan Poe.

The Schoolgirl

The initial incarnation of The Schoolgirl, a story paper for girls, was published by Shurey’s Publications of London.

The Schoolgirls’ Own

The Schoolgirls’ Own was a British weekly story paper aimed at girls. Published by Amalgamated Press, it was launched in February 1921 and ran for 798 issues until May 1936.

The Sea Raiders

Short story by H. G. Wells, first published in 1898, about a raid by an unknown species of octopus-like creatures on the south coast of England.

The Servant’s Magazine

The Servant’s Magazine was published monthly in England from 1838 until 1869. Priced at one penny, its mission was to provide “improving reading for servant girls”.

The Siren

Painting by John William Waterhouse

The Sleeping Girl of Turville

A girl who, her mother claimed, fell into a deep sleep from which she could not be roused for nine years.

The Star

“The Star” is a short story by H. G. Wells about a near collision between a comet from outer space and the Earth.

The Stolen Bacillus

A short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894, about an anarchist who steals what he believes to be a tube of cholera bacteria to poison London’s water supply, but which is in reality harmless.

The Stolen Body

A shory story by H. G. Wells, first published in 1898, about two paranormal researchers one of whom loses his body to an evil spirit.

The Story of Miss Moppet

The Story of Miss Moppet is a children’s story about teasing, featuring a kitten and a mouse. Written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter, it was published by Frederick Warne & Sons for the 1906 Christmas season.

The Story of the Inexperienced Ghost

Short story by H. G. Wells about a man who dies after re-enacting the masonic passes he had seen a ghost use to disappear.

The Tale of Benjamin Bunny

The Tale of Benjamin Bunny is a children’s book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter, and first published by Frederick Warne & Co. in September 1904. A sequel to The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902), it tells of Peter’s return to Mr. McGregor’s garden with his cousin Benjamin to retrieve the clothes he lost there during his earlier adventure.

The Tale of Peter Rabbit

The Tale of Peter Rabbit is a children’s book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter that follows the mischievous and disobedient young Peter Rabbit as he is chased about the garden of Mr. McGregor.

The Temptation of Harringay

A short story by H. G. Wells, published in 1895, about an artist who paints a man’s head that comes to life and criticises his work.

The Thing in No. 7

“The Thing in No. 7” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894, about the thing that one of a group of friends encounters after taking shelter in an empty house.

The Triumphs of a Taxidermist

A humorous short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1894.

The Truth About Pyecraft

Short story by H. G. Wells published in 1903, about a fat man who loses so much weight that he begins to float.

The Turn of the Screw

A ghost story written by Henry James and first published in 1898.

The Walking Horse locomotive

The Walking Horse, Lancashire’s first steam locomotive, was built by Robert Daglish in 1812 at the Haigh Foundry for colliery owner, John Clarke and it entered service the following year.

The Woman and the Car

The Woman and the Car (1909) is a handbook written by Doroth Levitt targeted at women motorists

The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster

The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster is the account of a series of English witch trials that took place on 18–19 August 1612, commonly known as the Lancashire witch trials.

There was an Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe

“There was an Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe” is an English nursery rhyme.

There’s Nae Luck Aboot The Hoose

A song by Scottish poet Jean Adam (1704–1765), set to the music of “Up an’ Waur Them A’ ”.

Thomas Gainsborough

Portrait and landscape painter, and a founding member of the Royal Academy of Arts.

Thomas Hayton Mawson

Thomas Hayton Mawson (1861–1933) was an early 20-century garden designer, landscape architect and town planner.

Thomas Linley

English tenor, musician and composer whose musically talented children were described as “a Nest of Nightingales”

Thomas Lyon-Bowes, Master of Glamis (born 1821)

The official record states that Thomas Lyon-Bowes died shortly after his birth, but rumours have circulated that he was born horribly deformed and raised in a secret room in Glamis Castle, the so-called Monster of Glamis.

Thomas Sheridan

Thomas Sheridan (1775 – 1817), known as Tom Sheridan, was the only son of the playwright and poet Richard Brinsley Sheridan and the soprano Elizabeth Ann Linley

Thomas Tyldesley

Sir Thomas Tyldesley (1612 – 25 August 1651) was a supporter of Charles I and a Royalist commander during the English Civil War.

Through a Window

A short story by H. G. Wells, first published in 1894, a precursor to the sub-genre of thriller in which a crippled or bed-ridden hero, after observing the world through a window, is suddenly confronted by a killer.

Tickle Cock Bridge

Tickle Cock Bridge is a pedestrian underpass in Castleford, England, under a railway line originally built by the York and North Midland Railway between York and Normanton.

Timber roof truss

A timber roof truss is a structural framework of timbers designed to bridge the space above a room and to provide support for a roof.

Timperley Hall

Timperley Hall was a moated manor house in Timperley, Greater Manchester, England, first recorded in 1560, but almost certainly built to replace an earlier medieval structure.

Tin tabernacle

Tin tabernacles are prefabricated ecclesiastical buildings made from corrugated galvanised iron. They were developed in the mid 19th century initially in Great Britain and built in Britain and exported across the world.

Tobacco smoke enema

The tobacco smoke enema, an insufflation of tobacco smoke into the rectum by enema, was a medical treatment employed by European physicians for a range of ailments

Town’s Hospital

The Town’s Hospital was a poorhouse in Glasgow, Scotland, founded in 1731. It occupied a site at the Old Green on Great Clyde Street, at the junction of present-day Ropework Lane.

Trafford Ecology Park

Trafford Ecology Park is a designated Site of Biological Importance and Local Nature Reserve in Trafford, Greater Manchester.

Trafford General Hospital

Trafford General Hospital in Greater Manchester is generally considered to be the UK’s first NHS hospital, and the first in the world to offer free healthcare to all.

Trafford Park

Trafford Park was the first planned industrial estate in the world, and remains the largest in Europe.

Trafford Park Aerodrome

Trafford Park Aerodrome was the first purpose-built airfield in the Manchester area.

Trafford Town Hall

Trafford Town Hall was officially opened as Stretford Town Hall on the granting of Stretford’s charter on 16 September 1933.

Turlington’s Balsam

Turlington’s Balsam of Life was a patent medicine developed by English merchant Robert Turlington, patented in 1744.

Tweedledum and Tweedledee

Tweedledum and Tweedledee are nursery rhyme characters most closely associated in the popular imagination with the characters of the same name in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871)

Tyldesley Coal Company

Tyldesley Coal Company was formed in 1870 in Tyldesley,[1] on the Manchester Coalfield in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

Tyldesley Little Theatre

Tyldesley Little Theatre is a small “back street” theatre in Lemon Street, Tyldesley, Greater Manchester, England.

Tyldesley Loopline

The Tyldesley Loopline, built by the London and North Western Railway, was primarily used to carry coal from local collieries. Closed in 1969, part of the track bed has been converted to a guided busway.

Tyldesley Urban District

Tyldesley cum Shakerley Urban District and its successor, Tyldesley Urban District. was from 1894 to 1974 a local government district in Lancashire, England. In 1974 the urban district was abolished and its former area was transfered to the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan in Greater Manchester.

Udny Castle

Udny Castle is a tower house in the parish of Udny, southwest of the village of Pitmedden and northeast of the hamlet of Udny Green, Aberdeenshire, in the northeast of Scotland.

Udny Mort House

In the 18th and 19th centuries body-snatchers, also known as resurrectionists, shush-lifters or noddies, excavated graves to meet the increasing demand from medical colleges for bodies to dissect, as not enough were being supplied from executions.

Ullerwood Castle

An early medieval fortification, possibly a shell keep, in Ringway, Greater Manchester, England.

Under the Knife

“Under the Knife” is a short story by H. G. Wells first published in 1896, about an out of body experience while under anaesthetic.


Undines (or ondines) are a category of imaginary elemental beings associated with water, first named in the alchemical writings of Paracelsus. Similar creatures are found in classical literature, particularly Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

Urban district

Administrative areas that had district councils and shared local government responsibilities with a county council.

Varney the Vampire

Varney the Vampire is the main character is a series of penny dreadfuls produced from 1845 until 1847. The stores introduced many of the ideas represented in modern vampire stories, such as Varley’s fangs leaving two puncture wounds on the necks of his victims.

Vesta Tilley

Vesta Tilley (1864–1952) was a popular English music hall performer and one of the most famous male impersonators of her era.

Vesta Victoria

Vesta Victoria (1873 –1951) was an English music hall singer and comedian.

Victoria Arches

A series of bricked-up arches in an embankment of the River Irwell in Manchester. They served as business premises, landing stages for steam packet riverboats and as Second World War air-raid shelters.

Victoria Tower

The Victoria Tower on Castle Hill overlooking Huddersfield was constructed as a permanent memorial for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee.

Victorian painting

Victorian painting refers to the distinctive styles of painting in the United Kingdom during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901).


A vill was the smallest administrative unit of the state in feudal England, equivalent to a modern civil parish.

Violet Alford

Violet Alford (18 March 1881 – 16 February 1972) was an internationally recognised authority on folk dancing and its related music and folk customs.

Waddow Hall

Waddow Hall is a 17th-century Grade II listed building within a 178-acre (72 ha) estate near Clitheroe, Lancashire.

Wakefield Castle

Wakefield Castle, Lowe Hill or Lawe Hill was a fortification built in the 12th century on a hill on the north side of the River Calder near Wakefield, England.

Waldegrave Conspiracy

The Waldregrave Conspiracy of 1561 was a supposed plot to kill Queen Elizabeth I and reintroduce Catholicism to England.

Wallsuches Bleachworks

Wallsuches Bleachworks takes its name from an area of Horwich in Greater Manchester, England. The area is notable for the bleachworks started by Thomas Ridgway.

Walter Traill Dennison

Orcadian folklorist and antiquarian

Wandering Jew

A Jewish cobbler condemned by Jesus to roam the world without rest until the end of time for taunting him on his way to the Crucifixion.

Warburton Toll Bridge

A privately owned statutory tolled undertaking which incorporates a public highway road length, one of the few remaining pre-motorway toll bridges in the UK.

Warrington Perambulating Library

The Warrington Perambulating Library has been described by historian Ian Orton as “one of the most revolutionary library advances of the nineteenth century”.

Water bull

The water bull, also known as tarbh uisge in Scottish Gaelic, is a mythological Scottish creature similar to the Manx tarroo ushtey.

Welcome to Engole

Wellington Suspension Bridge

Bridge crossing the River Dee in Aberdeen, northeast Scotland

Wharton Hall Colliery

Wharton Hall Colliery was in Little Hulton on the Lancashire Coalfield in Lancashire, north west England.

Whipping Tom

Whipping Tom was the name given to two sex offenders, one in London and the other in the nearby village of Hackney, active in 1681 and 1712 respectively.

Whirligig (TV series)

Whirligig is a BBC television programme for children broadcast from 1950 until 1956.

White Cross Army

The White Cross Army was an organisation set up in 1883 by philanthropist Ellice Hopkins with help from the Bishop of Durham, to promote “social purity”.

White poppy

The white poppy was introduced in 1933 by the British Women’s Cooperative Guild as a pacifist alternative to the Royal British Legion’s annual red poppy appeal.

Wife selling

Wife selling in England was a way of ending an unsatisfactory marriage by mutual agreement that probably began in the late 17th century, when divorce was a practical impossibility for all but the very wealthiest.

Wigan Pier

Wigan Pier is an area around the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Wigan, Greater Manchester, England, a wharf where coal from a nearby colliery was transferred from wagons into canal barges via an iron tippler. It was demolished in 1929.

William Calcraft

William Calcraft (11 October 1800 – 13 December 1879) was a 19th-century English hangman, one of the most prolific of British executioners.

William Cragh

Born in about 1262, William Cragh was a medieval Welsh warrior whose supposed resurrection after having been hanged for the killing of thirteen men, was one of the 38 miracles presented to the Vatican to justify the canonisation of St Thomas de Cantilupe.

William Harrison Ainsworth

William Harrison Ainsworth (1805–1882) was an English historical novelist, at one time considered a rival to Charles Dickens.

William Harrison Ainsworth Bibliography

The works of William Harrison Ainsworth (1805–1882) listed in order of their date of first publication.

William Henry Gaunt

William Henry Gaunt (born in Bradford, Yorkshire, 13 January 1874 – 31 October 1951) was an English transport engineer who began his working life developing and building gas-powered trams.

William Hulton

William Hulton was the magistrate who ordered the yeomanry to charge into the crowd at the Peterloo Massacre.

William Speirs Bruce

William Spiers Bruce was a Scottish naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organised and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition of 1902–1904.

William Waterhouse

English artist; father of John William Waterhouse

Winter Hill

The high point of Rivington Moor in the West Pennine Moors is 1,496 feet high and has been the site of mining, a mass trespass, aeroplane disasters and murder.

Winter Hill Trespass

The Winter Hill trespass in 1896 was organised when Colonel Ainsworth closed a track leading to Winter Hill denying the right of access to the local population.

Witch of Endor

The Witch of Endor is a female sorcerer who appears in the Old Testament (1 Samuel 28:3–25).

Witch trials in early modern Scotland

The judicial proceedings in Scotland between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century concerned with crimes of witchcraft, part of a series of witch trials in Early Modern Europe.


Methods used to identify witches.

Witch’s broomstick

Although witches in the popular imagination are widely believed to have flown through the air on broomsticks, only a very small number ever confessed to having done so.

Witchcraft Act 1735

The Witchcraft Act 1735 (9 Geo. II c. 5), sometimes referred to as the Witchcraft Act 1736 owing to dating complexities, repealed the earlier statutes concerning witchcraft throughout Great Britain, including Scotland, which had its own legal system.

Witchcraft Acts

Until the passage of Henry VIII’s Act of 1542 witchcraft was dealt with by the ecclesiastical courts rather being seen as a secular felony. It is unknown what triggered the perceived need for such a law, but it undoubtedly suited Henry’s agenda of wresting power from the Catholic Church.

Witchcraft in Orkney

Witchcraft in Orkney possibly has its roots in the settlement of Norsemen on the archipelago from the eighth century onwards. Until the early modern period magical powers were accepted as part of the general lifestyle, but witch-hunts began on the mainland of Scotland in about 1550.

Witches of Belvoir

The Witches of Belvoir were a mother and her two daughters accused of causing the deaths by witchcraft of two young nobles, Henry and Francis Manners.

Women’s Suffrage Journal

The Women’s Suffrage Journal was a magazine founded by Lydia Becker and Jessie Boucherett in 1870, and focused on news of events affecting women’s lives.


In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

Worsley Navigable Levels

An extensive network of underground canals that drained the Duke of Bridgewater’s coal pits emerge into the open at the Delph in Worsley, Greater Manchester.

Worsley New Hall

Worsley’s third manor house, New Hall was built in 1846 to designs by Edward Blore for Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere.

Worthington Hall, Wigan

Worthington Hall is an Elizabethan farm house on Chorley Lane in Wigan, Manchester, England. An inscription on a lintel in the gabled porch dates the building to 1577.


The wulver is a fairy being, part of the folklore of the Shetland Islands off the coast of Scotland. A type of werewolf, it is half man, half wolf.

Wythenshawe Hall

Wythenshawe Hall is a 16th-century medieval timber-framed historic house and former manor house in Wythenshawe, Manchester, England.

Yard with Lunatics

Yard with Lunatics is a small oil-on-tinplate painting by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya, produced between 1793 and 1794.

Yew Tree Colliery

Yew Tree Colliery was a coal mine operating on the Manchester Coalfield after 1845 in Tyldesley, which was then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

You Are Old, Father William

“You Are Old, Father William” is a poem by Lewis Carroll that first appeared in his book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865).

YouTube videos

Inserting YouTube videos.


Zam-Buk was a patent medicine produced by the Zam-Buk Company of Leeds, England, founded by Charles Edward Fulford. It was first sold by his Bile Beans company in 1902, as a herbal balm and antiseptic ointment.


A zitiron, or sea knight, is a mythological creature that has an upper body in the form of an armed knight, fused with the tail of a fish.