Urban districts were local government administrative areas that had urban district councils (UDC), sharing local government responsibilities with a county council. They were created by the Local Government Act of 1894 (57 &58 Vict, c58), and replaced the system of sanitary boards with urban and rural district councils.
Urban districts had more local government functions than the sanitary boards, and were run by councils with elected councillors. The Act made it “compulsory for parishes with a death rate over 2.34% to establish a Board of Health”. Urban districts contained small towns, and by 1965 there were 548 in England and Wales; they were abolished in 1974.