The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury, writing in the 1120s, tells how a woman living in Berkeley, Gloucestershire – “addicted to witchcraft … excessively gluttonous, perfectly lascivious” – had sold her soul to the Devil in return for his assistance in rescuing her from her “wretched circumstances”.
One day in 1065 the woman was warned by her pet jackdaw that her death was imminent.[a]The jackdaw may have been an early form of a witch’s familiarDemonic spirit who attends upon a witch, possessing magical powers that can be used for good or evil. Often taking the form of a small animal such as a cat.. Knowing that she could not save her soul, she begged her family to at least protect her body, by sewing it up in a stag’s hide and laying it in a stone coffin fastened with three chains; after standing in a church for three nights, her body could then be safely buried. But each night demons entered and broke one of the chains. Finally the Devil dragged the woman out of the church and set her behind him on “a black horse … with iron hooks projecting over the whole of his [the horse’s] back … her pitiable cries … were heard for nearly the space of four miles”.
The jackdaw may have been an early form of a witch’s familiarDemonic spirit who attends upon a witch, possessing magical powers that can be used for good or evil. Often taking the form of a small animal such as a cat..
The technical storage or access is strictly necessary for the legitimate purpose of enabling the use of a specific service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user, or for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network.
The technical storage or access is necessary for the legitimate purpose of storing preferences that are not requested by the subscriber or user.
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes.The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you.
The technical storage or access is required to create user profiles to send advertising, or to track the user on a website or across several websites for similar marketing purposes.