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Rivington Unitarian ChapelGoogle map
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Rivington Unitarian Chapel is an active place of Unitarian worship in RivingtonRivington is a village in the Borough of Chorley, to the northwest of Bolton on the fringe of the West Pennine Moors., Lancashire. Its congregation dates from 1662 when it separated from Rivington Church but the stone not built until 1703. The congregation is a member of the Manchester District Association of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches.[1] The chapel was Grade II* listed in 1967.[2]

The historic Presbyterian congregation dates from 1662 when it separated from the parish church. The chapel was built using local stone in 1703. The restored interior contains the original box pewsA type of church seating with enclosed sides and a memorial to the Willoughbys of Parham who supported its foundation. Presbyterianism gave way to the Unitarianism in the late-18th century.

Background


Between 1649 and 1660 Parliament dismantled the Church of England and the Presbyterian Church which was governed by non-hierarchical assemblies of clergy and lay elders was established. Worship was based on preaching from the Bible rather than the prayer book. After the return of Charles II, the Church of England was restored and in 1662 but by then other religious movements had taken hold. Penal laws enacted in the 1660s and 1670s persecuted Catholics and Nonconformists unleashing violent religious disturbances. Holders of public office, peers, MPs, schoolmasters, clergy, students at Oxford and Cambridge had to swear an oath upholding the King as head of the Church of England or lost most of their civil rights. Attending Catholic or Nonconformist worship was illegal and punishable by fine or imprisonment.[3]

History


The chief inhabitants in Rivington remained Presbyterian after their minister,The Reverend Samuel Newton,[4] was ejected from the church. He returned after a short time and the congregation appears to have remained Nonconformist.[5] Other meeting places were also used and Thomas Anderton of Great House gave £100 to endow a minister in 1693. The chapel was built in 1703. It contains a monument to the Willoughbys of Parham, who supported its erection. By the late 18th century Presbyterianism had given way to the Unitarian doctrine.[6]

Structure


The chapel is a plain structure, built of gritstone with quoins at the corners and a slate roof. It has a small, hexagonal bellcote on the west gable. The side walls have two cross-windows with rectangular panes of glass and the gable walls have windows with small diamond-latticed panes of glass. On the south side are two doorways with chamfered surrounds; over one door is a lintel dated 1703. At the north-west corner is a two-storey wing with a tall chimney stack, which was the school house. The building is surrounded by a drystone wall and has cast iron gates.[3]

The ceiling is supported by oak beams; the walls are plain and lime washed. On the north wall between the windows is a raised, five-sided, panelled pulpit with a carved frieze and moulded cornice. The chapel retains its box pews which were originally individually owned or rented. The Willoughby pew by the south wall has a large ornate canopy with panelled reredosA large ornamented wall, screen, or other structure placed behind the altar in a Christian church. and a moulded and carved cornice in the classical style. The choir stall is at the east end.[3]

In the graveyard is the gravestone of one of the earliest textile factory builders, Samuel Oldknow “of Nottingham, late of Anderton” from 1759.[3] A plaque by the yew tree commemorates the American poet, Walt Whitman.[1]

Citations



Bibliography


Farrer, W., & Brownbill, J. (1911). Rivington. In A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53050
Fergusson Irvine, W. (1904). A short History of the Township of Rivington in the County of Lancashire. Ballantyne Press. http://www.archive.org/stream/shorthistoryofto00irvi#page/n0/mode/2up
Historic England. (n.d.). Unitarian Chapel. National Heritage List for England. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1362126
Manchester District Association. (2018). Welcome to Rivington Unitarians. Unitarians Manchester District Association. https://unitariansmda.org.uk/rivington-unitarians