Scammonden in West Yorkshire is in the valley of the Dean Brook surrounded by the moorland of the South Pennines to the east of Blackstone EdgeBlackstone Edge is a gritstone escarpment at 1549 feet (472 m) above sea level in the South Pennine hills.. About 900 of the chapelry’s 1711 acres (692 ha) were enclosed in 1820, but the surrounding hills are uncultivated rough pasture.
Most of the village was flooded in the 1960s when Scammonden Dam and the M62 trans-Pennine motorway were constructed across the valley and Scammonden Bridge carrying the B6114 road over the motorway was built across a deep cutting to the north west.
Scammonden is 1¾ miles (2.8 km) north of Slaithwaite and 7½ miles (12.1 km) west of Huddersfield. The Dean Brook Valley is in the South Pennine moorlands to the east of Blackstone Edge. Its deep valley contained the village with a church and scattered farms. The lower slopes were enclosed in 1820, but the surrounding hills are uncultivated rough pasture. Roads from Elland, Huddersfield and Manchester passed through the village.
Scammonden’s geography was changed after a dam carrying a motorway across the Dean Head Valley was proposed in the early 1960s. The dual-purpose dam carrying the M62 motorway on the dam wall now crosses the valley creating the Scammonden ReservoirScammonden Reservoir in the South Pennines supplies water to Huddersfield in West Yorkshire.. The motorway passes through a cutting to the west over which Scammonden Bridge, the country’s largest single-span fixed-arch bridge, carries a B-road.
Scammonden’s name is derived from an Old Norse personal name, Skammbein, and denu the Old English word for a valley.
Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Scammonden or Dean Head covered a large tract of moorland and valley. A chapel was built in 1615 and Scammonden became a chapelry in the Huddersfield ecclesiastical parishAncient or ancient ecclesiastical parishes encompassed groups of villages and hamlets and their adjacent lands over which a clergyman had jurisdiction.. The chapel was rebuilt at a cost of £1000 in 1813. It was replaced by St Bartholomew’s Church in 1865.
In the 1870s the village had a church, a national school, a post office and 190 houses. Industry included cotton-spinning and woollen manufacture and quarrying for freestone. Most buildings in the village were demolished or submerged when the reservoir was filled in 1969. Geologists considered the church and school would become unsafe once the dam was full and the church school closed in 1970. It is now a private residence. The church roof was replaced in 2002 with the aid of grants from English Heritage.
Reservoir and motorway
The M62 motorway which passes through the Pennine hills, where weather conditions are among the harshest in the country, required a route that could stay open in bad weather. When it was planned, the Huddersfield Water Authority was considering sites for a reservoir. They suggested that by siting the dam across the Dean Head Valley on the route of the motorway, a tall dam could create a larger reservoir. Work on the trans-Pennine motorway began in 1964. Designed by Rofe, Kennard and Lapworth and built by Sir Alfred MacAlpine, Scammonden Dam creates a reservoir and supports a stretch of the motorway between junctions 22 and 23. Scammonden Bridge, the country’s largest single-span fixed-arch bridge, carries the B6114 road over the motorway at the Deanhead cutting.